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DDT and HCH Residues in Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Cultivated in Dehradun (India)


Organochlorine pesticides were used earlier for agricultureproduction. Their residues may still be present in soil and mayaccumulate in food crops, posing potential health problems to consumers. DDT, HCH, their isomers and metabolites were analyzedin samples of soil and rice plants collected from ten differentvillages of a well-known Basmati rice growing area in Dehradun.Residues of both pesticides were found in all samples ofsoil and different parts of rice plants except for a few grainsamples. Maximum residue was observed in husk and minimum ingrains. The average concentration of DDT in soil ranged from0.013 to 0.238 ppm. p,p′-DDE was the major metabolite (>63%). Theaverage concentration of DDT in rice grain varied from 0.002 to 0.040 ppm. o,p′-DDT was the main isomer (>93%). Theaverage concentration of HCH in soil ranged from 0.122 to 0.638 ppm. β-HCH was the predominant (43%) isomerfollowed by α-HCH (21%). The average HCH concentrationin rice grain ranged between 0.013 and 0.113 ppm. All four isomers were present in grains. The levels of DDT and CHCin grains were similar in magnitude as those from differentIndian states, but well below the maximum residue limit of 0.1 ppm for DDT and 0.05 ppm for HCH prescribed by the Government ofIndia and WHO/FAO. As such, the pesticide residue levels in thisexport commodity are not of hazardous nature.

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Correspondence to R. K. Hans.

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Suresh Babu, G., Farooq, M., Ray, R.S. et al. DDT and HCH Residues in Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Cultivated in Dehradun (India). Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 144, 149–157 (2003).

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  • DDT
  • HCH residues
  • metabolites
  • organochlorinepesticide
  • Oryza sativa
  • soil