Advertisement

Child and Youth Care Forum

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 47–72 | Cite as

Health Realization: A Principle-Based Psychology of Positive Youth Development

  • Thomas M. Kelley
Article

Abstract

While we have numerous research-based programs for youth aimed at curbing drug use, violence, suicide, teen pregnancy, and delinquency, we lack a rigorous principle-based psychology of positive youth development. Instead of focusing on fixing what is assumed to be missing or broken in at-risk youth, we need a psychology grounded in fundamental causal principles that reveal clearly how such children and adolescents can become self-motivated, socially competent, compassionate, and psychologically vigorous adults. While the emerging field of positive psychology has attempted to shift the field's emphasis from understanding and treating youthful dysfunction to facilitating well-being and resiliency in young people, it lacks a principle-based foundation and continues to mistakenly endorse external causes of positive affect and prosocial behavior. This paper offers a unique, principle-based psychology of positive youth development commonly known as health realization (HR). The underlying principles of HR are delineated, contemporary research that supports its major assumptions cited, and the results of applied HR research with at-risk youth in clinical, educational, and community empowerment settings described.

health realization positive youth development positive psychology psychology of mind 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agnew, R. (1985). Social control theory and delinquency: A longitudinal test. Criminology, 23, 47–61.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. (1982). Attachment, retrospect, and prospect. In C. M. Parkes & J. Stevenson (Eds.), The place of attachment in human behavior. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  3. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  4. Arendt, R., Cone, F.L., & Sroufe, A.L. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten. A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity of preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 950–959.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, J. (1990). The serenity principle. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, J. (1989). New hope for depression: A study in neo-cognitive therapy. Paper presented at the Eighth Annual Psychology of Mind Conference. St. Petersburg, Florida.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, J., Blevens, J. K., & Heath, C. (1988). Early results: A six-year post-hoc follow-up study of the long-term effectiveness of neo-cognitive psychotherapy. Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Psychology of Mind Conference. Coral Gables, Florida.Google Scholar
  8. Baltes, P.B., & Staudinger, U.M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–131.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44: 1175–1184.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. (1991). Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Perspectives on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  11. Banks, S. (1983). Second chance. Tampa, FL: Duval Bibb Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  12. Banks, S. (1989). In quest of the pearl. Tampa, FL: Duval Bibb Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  13. Banks, S. (1998). The missing link. Vancouver, B.C.: Lone Pine Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Banks, S. (2001). The Enlightened Gardener, Vancouver, B.C.: Lone Pine Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Beck, A.T. (1991). Cognitive therapy: A 30-year retrospective. American Psychologist, 46, 368–375.Google Scholar
  16. Benard, B. (1996). Musings II: Rethinking how we do prevention. Western Center News, March. Portland, OR: Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.Google Scholar
  17. Blevens, J., Bailey, J., Olson, P., & Mills, R. C. (1992). Treatment effects of neo-cognitive therapy: A formative evaluation. Paper prepared for the Foundation for the Advancement of Mental Health. Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  18. Block, J.H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency. In W.A. Collins (Ed.), TheMinnesota Symposium on Child Psychology: Vol. 13. Development of cognitive affect and social relations (pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Borg, M. B. (1997). The impact of training in the health realization model on affective states of psychological distress. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  20. Burns, D. (1980). Feeling good: The new mood therapy. New York: Morrow. Google Scholar
  21. Buss, D.M. (2000). The evolution of happiness. American Psychologist, 55, 15–23.Google Scholar
  22. Carlson, R., & Bailey, J. (1999). Slowing down to the speed of life. San Francisco: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  23. Carver, C. S., & Schieir, M. F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97, 19–35.Google Scholar
  24. Cherry, A. (1992). Assessment of effectiveness using the informed families outcome evaluation systems. Miami Shores, FL: Barry University, School of Social Work.Google Scholar
  25. Coombs, J., & Cooley, W. (1986). Dropouts: In high school and after high school. American Educational Research Journal. 5, 343–363.Google Scholar
  26. Crystal, A., & Shuford, R. (1988). The efficacy of a neo-cognitive approach to positive psychological change. Advanced Human Studies Institute, Coral Gables, FL.Google Scholar
  27. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow. San Francisco: Harper-Collins.Google Scholar
  28. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). If we are so rich, why aren't we happy? American Psychologist, 54, 821–827.Google Scholar
  29. Curtis, B., Smith, R., & Small, F. (1979). Scrutinizing the skipper: A study of leadership behavior in the dugout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 391–400.Google Scholar
  30. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  31. Derogatis, L.R. (1977). SCL-90R: Administration, scoring and procedures manual I. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometrics Research.Google Scholar
  32. Derogatis, L.R. (1983). Description and bibliography for the SCL-90R and other instrument of the psycho-pathology rating scale series. Baltimore: Clinical Psychometric Research.Google Scholar
  33. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.Google Scholar
  34. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being. A science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43.Google Scholar
  35. Dodge, K. A., & Frame, C. M. (1982). Social-cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53: 620–635.Google Scholar
  36. Ekstrom, R.B., Gortz, M.E., Pollack, J.M., & Rock, D.A. (1986). Who drops out of school and why? Findings from a national study. Teacher's College Record, 87, 3, 356–373.Google Scholar
  37. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Seacaucus: Lyle Stuart.Google Scholar
  38. Foley, E., & Warren, D. (1985). Dropout prevention: A first step: The story of New York City's implementation of education law 3602 (D) relating to attendance improvement and dropout prevention. New York: The Public Education Association.Google Scholar
  39. Gadwa, K., & Griggs, S. A. (1985). The school dropout: Implications for counselors. The School Counselor, 33, 9–17.Google Scholar
  40. Goleman, D. G. (1992). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than I.Q. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  41. Harter, S. (1988). The construction and conservation of the self: James and Cooley revisited. In D.K. Lapsley & R.C. Power (Eds.), Self, ego and identity: Integrative approaches. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  42. Harter, S. (1990). Developmental differences in the nature of self-representations: Implications for the understanding, assessment, and treatment of maladaptive behavior, Cognitive Therapy and Research. Google Scholar
  43. Heath, S. B. (1991). “It's about winning!”: The language of knowledge in baseball. In L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, & S. D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 101–124), Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  44. Heath, S. B. (1994). The project of learning from the inner-city youth perspective. In F. A. Villarruel, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.). Promoting community-based programs for socialization and learning (New Directions for Child Development. Vol. 63, pp. 25–34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Heath, S. B. (1999). Dimensions of language development: Lessons from older children. In A. S. Masten (Ed.), Cultural processes in child development: TheMinnesota Symposium of Child Psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 59–75). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Heath, C. Emiliano, S.Y., and Usagawa, S.K. (April, 1992). Project Mainstream Hawaii: Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  47. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Iran-Nejad, A. (1990). Active and dynamic self-regulation of learning processes. Review of Educational Research, 60, 573–602.Google Scholar
  49. Jung, C. (1933). Modern man in search of a soul. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  50. Kelley, T. M. (1990). A neo-cognitive model of crime. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 16, 1–26.Google Scholar
  51. Kelley, T. M. (1993a). Neo-cognitive learning theory: Implications for prevention and early intervention strategies with at-risk youth. Adolescence, 23, 439–460.Google Scholar
  52. Kelley, T. M. (1993b). An advanced criminology based on Psychology of Mind. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 15, 173–190.Google Scholar
  53. Kelley, T.M. (1993c). Crime and Psychology of Mind: A neo-cognitive view of delinquency. In G. Barak (Ed.), Varieties of criminology: Readings from a dynamic discipline (pp. 29–45). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  54. Kelley, T. M. (1996). A critique of social bonding and control theory of delinquency using the principles of Psychology of Mind. Adolescence, 31(122), 321–337.Google Scholar
  55. Kelley, T. M. (1997). Falling in love with life: A guide to EFFORTLESS happiness and inner peace. Rochester, MI: Breakthrough Press.Google Scholar
  56. Kelley, T.M. (2001). The need for a principle-based positive psychology (comment). American Psychologist, 56, 1, 36–37.Google Scholar
  57. Kelley, T. M., & Stack, S. (2000). Thought recognition, locus of control, and adolescent happiness. Adolescence, 35, 531–550.Google Scholar
  58. Klein, H. A. (1977). Towards more effective behavioral programs for juvenile offenders. Federal Probation, 41, 45–56.Google Scholar
  59. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170–183.Google Scholar
  60. Larson, R.W., & Richards, M.H. (1991). Boredom in the middle school years: Blaming schools versus blaming students. American Journal of Education, 99, 418–443.Google Scholar
  61. Maslow, A. (1971). The farthest reaches of human nature. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  62. McCombs, B.G. (1991). Metacognition and motivation for higher level thinking. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  63. McCombs, B.G., Bland, C., & Shown, J. (1994). Neighbors making a difference: Community empowerment as a primary prevention strategy and foundation for collaborative partnerships: final report-executive summary, Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory. Aurora, Colorado.Google Scholar
  64. McCombs, B.L., & Marzano, R. J. (1990). Putting the self in self-regulated learning: The self as agent in integrating will and skill. Educational Psychologist, 25, 51–69.Google Scholar
  65. Mills, R.C. (1988). Modello early intervention project: Second quarterly report. Miami, Florida: Metro-Dade Department of Youth and Family Development, Bureau of Criminal Justice Assistance.Google Scholar
  66. Mills, R.C. (Nov. 1989). MMPA Summary Progress Report: The Modello early intervention program. Metro-Miami Action Plan, Health & Human Services Sub-committee.Google Scholar
  67. Mills, R. C. (Jan. 1990a). The Modello-Homestead Gardens intervention program, summary progress report. Paper presented at the National Association of Counties. Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  68. Mills, R. C. (1990b). Substance abuse, dropout, and delinquency prevention: The Modello / Homestead Gardens public housing project. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Conference on Psychology of Mind, St. Petersburg, FL.Google Scholar
  69. Mills, R. C. (Jan. 1990c). The Modello-Homestead Gardens intervention program, summary progress report. Paper presented at the National Association of Counties. Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  70. Mills, R. C. (1992). The Psychology of Mind applied to substance abuse, dropout, and delinquency prevention: The Modello / Homestead Gardens intervention project. Paper presented at the Tenth Annual Conference of Psychology of Mind, St. Petersburg, Florida.Google Scholar
  71. Mills, R. C. (1995). Realizing mental health. New York: Sulzburger & Graham.Google Scholar
  72. Mills, R.C. (1997). Psychology of Mind in prevention: Health Realization. In G. Pransky, The renaissance of psychology (pp. 205–229). New York: Sulzburger & Graham Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. Mills, R. C. (2000). The understanding behind health realization, a principle-based psychology: Summary of clinical, prevention and community empowerment applications-documented outcomes. Long Beach, CA: Health Realization Institute.Google Scholar
  74. Mills, R. C., Dunham, R.G., & Alpert, G. (1988a). Working with high-risk youth in prevention and early intervention programs: Toward a comprehensive wellness model. Adolescence, 23, 643–660.Google Scholar
  75. Mills, R. C., & Pransky, G. (1993). Psychology of Mind: The basis for health realization. The founder's monograph. Paper presented at the 12th Annual Conference on Psychology of Mind, Burlington, VT.Google Scholar
  76. Mills, R. C., & Spittle, E. (1998). The health realization community empowerment primer. Long Beach, CA: Health Realization Institute.Google Scholar
  77. Mills, R. C., & Spittle, E. (2000). The understanding behind health realization: A principle-based psychology. Long Beach, CA: Health Realization Institute.Google Scholar
  78. Mills, R. C., & Spittle, E. (2001). The wisdom within. Renton, WA: Lone Pine Publishers.Google Scholar
  79. Myers, D. G. (1992). The pursuit of happiness: Discovering the pathway to fulfillment, well-being, and enduring personal joy. New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
  80. Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56–57.Google Scholar
  81. O'Conner, O. (1985). Dropout prevention programs that work. Oregon School Study Council Bulletin, 29, 7–13.Google Scholar
  82. Oden, S. (1995). Studying youth programs to assess influences on youth development. New roles for researchers. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 173–186.Google Scholar
  83. O.M.G., Inc. (1994). Final annual assessment report: Comprehensive community revitalization program. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  84. Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638–650.Google Scholar
  85. Peck, N., Law, A., & Mills, R. C. (1987). Dropout prevention: What we have learned. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami, Center for Dropout Prevention.Google Scholar
  86. Phillips, E.L. (1968). Achievement Place: Token reinforcement procedures in a homestyle rehabilitation setting for pre-delinquent boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 213.Google Scholar
  87. Pransky, G. (1990). The relationship handbook. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TPB Books.Google Scholar
  88. Pransky, J. (1991). Prevention: the critical need. Springfield, MO: Burrell Foundation.Google Scholar
  89. Pransky, J. (1994). Can prevention be moved to a higher plane? New designs for youth development. Tucson, Arizona: Development Associates.Google Scholar
  90. Pransky, G. (1997). The renaissance of psychology. New York: Sulzburger & Graham Publishing.Google Scholar
  91. Pransky, J. (1998). Modello: An inside-out model of prevention and resiliency in action through health realization. Cabot, Vermont: NEHRI Publications.Google Scholar
  92. Pransky, J. (1999). The experience of participants after health realization training: A one-year follow-up phenomenological study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Union Institute, Cabot, VT: NEIHRI Publications.Google Scholar
  93. Pransky, J. & Carpenos, L. (2000). Healthy thinking/feeling/doing from the inside out. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.Google Scholar
  94. Reckless, W. (1967). The crime problem. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts.Google Scholar
  95. Ringold, C. (1992). Changing hearts, changing minds: The usefulness of psychology of mind in the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia-two case studies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Minnesota School of Professional Psychology.Google Scholar
  96. Roe, J., & Bowser, B. (1993). Health Realization/community empowerment project: Evaluation of First Year Activities. Submitted to East Bay Community Recovery Project.Google Scholar
  97. Rutherford, R.B. (1975). Establishing behavioral contracts with delinquent adolescents. Federal Probation, 39, 29.Google Scholar
  98. Salovey, P., Rothman, A.J., Detweiler, J.B., & Steward, W.T. (2000). Emotional states and physical health. American Psychologist, 55, 110–121.Google Scholar
  99. Samenow, S. (1984). Inside the criminal mind. New York: Times Books.Google Scholar
  100. Schieir, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1987). Dispositional optimism and physical well-being: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55, 169–210.Google Scholar
  101. Sedgeman, J. (1997). Teaching the Principles: The beauty of simplicity. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Conference on Psychology of Mind, Oahu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  102. Seeman, J. (1989). Toward a model of positive health. American Psychologist, 44, 1099–1109.Google Scholar
  103. Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  104. Seligman, M. E. P. (1998a). Positive social science. APA Monitor, 29, April.Google Scholar
  105. Seligman, M. E. P. (1998b). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  106. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.Google Scholar
  107. Shuford, R. J. (1986). An exploratory study to determine the effectiveness of a neo-cognitive treatment approach when utilized in a clinical setting. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon. Eugene, Oregon.Google Scholar
  108. Shuford, R., & Crystal, A. (1988). The efficacy of a neo-cognitive approach to psychotherapy. Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Conference on Psychology of Mind, Coral Gables, FL.Google Scholar
  109. Shure, M. D., & Spivak, G. (1982). Interpersonal problem solving in young children: Cognitive approach to prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 42–59.Google Scholar
  110. Skinner, B.F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  111. Small, F.L., Smith, R. E. Barnett, N. P., & Everett, J. J. (1993). Enhancement of children's self-esteem through social support training and youth sport coaches. Journal of Applied Psychology.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, R. E., & Small, F. L. (1990). Self-esteem and children's reactions to youth sport coaching behaviors: A field study of self-enhancement processes. Developmental Psychology, 26, 937–993.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, R. E., & Small, F. L. (1997).Coaching the coaches: Youth sports as a scientific and applied behavioral setting. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 16–21.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, R. & Walters, J. (1978). Delinquent and non-delinquent males' perceptions of their fathers. Adolescence, 13, 21–28.Google Scholar
  115. Sroufe, A., Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. (1983). The development consequence of different patterns of maltreatment. International Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, 1, 459–469.Google Scholar
  116. Sroufe, L.A. (1979). The coherence of individual development: early care, attachment, and subsequent development issues. American Psychologist, 34, 834–841.Google Scholar
  117. Stern, D., Catterall, J., Ahadeff, D., & Ash, M. (eds.) (1985). Report to the California Policy Seminar on reducing the dropout rate in California. Berkeley: University of California, School of Education.Google Scholar
  118. Stewart, C. (1987). The efficacy of a neo-cognitive psychology with DUI clients. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Florida Alcohol & Drug Abuse Association. Miami, Florida.Google Scholar
  119. Stewart, D. (1985). Affective states as the key variable in determining student mastery of basic reading skills. Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Conference on Psychology of Mind, Kahuku, HI.Google Scholar
  120. Suarez, E., Mills, R. C., & Stewart, D. (1987). Sanity, insanity, and common sense. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  121. Sutherland, E. (1939). Principles of criminology. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  122. Sykes, F., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.Google Scholar
  123. Taylor, S.E., Kemeny, M.E., Reed, G.M., Bower, J.E., & Gruenewald, T.L. (2000). Psychological resources, positive illusions, and health. American Psychologist, 55, 99–109.Google Scholar
  124. Terman, C.M. (1939). The gifted student and his academic environment. School and Society, 49, 65–73.Google Scholar
  125. Thomas, R. (1993). Toward a seamless approach to human problems. Unpublished master's thesis. Goddard University, Plainfield, VT.Google Scholar
  126. Vaillant, G.E. (2000). Adoptive mental mechanisms: Their role in a positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55, 89–98.Google Scholar
  127. Walters, G.D., & White, T.W. (1989). The thinking criminal: A cognitive model of lifestyle criminality. Criminal Justice Research Bulletin, 4 (4), 1–9.Google Scholar
  128. Watson, J. (1928). Psychological care of infant and child. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  129. Weiner, B. (1990). History of motivational research in education. Journal of Educational Psychology. 82, 4, 616–622.Google Scholar
  130. Weisman, M.M., & Bothwell, S. (1976). Assessment of social adjustment by patient selfreport. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 1111–1115.Google Scholar
  131. Weisman, M.M., Bridgette, A., Prysoff, M.P., Thompson, W.D., Harding, P.S., & Myers, J.K. (1978). Social adjustment by self-report in a community sample and in psychiatric outpatients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 166, 317–326.Google Scholar
  132. Werner, E.E. (1989). High risk children in youth adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopyschiatry. Google Scholar
  133. Wilson, J. Q., & Herrnstein, R. (1985). Crime and human nature. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas M. Kelley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Criminal JusticeWayne State UniversityDetroit

Personalised recommendations