Advertisement

Sociological Forum

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 397–424 | Cite as

The Emotions of Protest: Affective and Reactive Emotions In and Around Social Movements

  • James M. Jasper
Article

Abstract

The recent explosion of cultural work on social movements has been highly cognitive in its orientation, as though researchers were still reluctant to admit that strong emotions accompany protest. But such emotions do not render protestors irrational; emotions accompany all social action, providing both motivation and goals. Social movements are affected by transitory, context-specific emotions, usually reactions to information and events, as well as by more stable affective bonds and loyalties. Some emotions exist or arise in individuals before they join protest groups; others are formed or reinforced in collective action itself. The latter type can be further divided into shared and reciprocal emotions, the latter being feelings that protestors have toward each other.

social movements protest emotions affect political participation frame alignment moral shocks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Armon-Jones, Claire 1986 “The thesis of constructionism.” In Rom Harré (ed.), The Social Construction of Emotions. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  2. Averill, James R. 1980 “A constructivist view of emotion.” In Robert Plutchik and Henry Kellerman (eds.), Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience, vol. 1: Theories of Emotion. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, Samuel H. et al. 1979 Political Action. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, Derrick 1992 Faces at the Bottom of the Well. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Bernstein, Mary and James M. Jasper 1996 “Interests and credibility: Whistleblowers in technological conflicts.” Social Science Information 35:565-589.Google Scholar
  6. Cancian, Francesca M. 1987 Love in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Collins, Randall 1990 “Stratification, emotional energy, and the transient emotions.” In Theodore D. Kemper (ed.), Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  8. Couch, Stephen Robert and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith 1985 “The chronic technical disaster: Toward a social scientific perspective.” Social Science Quarterly 66:564-575.Google Scholar
  9. Davies, A. F. 1980 Skills, Outlooks and Passions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. de Sousa, Ronald 1987 The Rationality of Emotion. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Durkheim, Emile 1965 The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  12. Erikson, Kai T. 1994 A New Species of Trouble. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  13. Freudenburg, William R. 1993 “Risk and recreancy: Weber, the division of labor, and the rationality of risk perceptions.” Social Forces 71:909-932.Google Scholar
  14. Frijda, Nico H. 1986 The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gamson, Joshua 1995 “Must identity movements self-destruct? A queer dilemma.” Social Problems 42:390-407.Google Scholar
  16. Gamson, William A. 1992 Talking Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gamson, William A., Bruce Fireman, and Steven Rytina 1982 Encounters with Unjust Authority. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  18. Goodwin, Jeff 1997 “The libidinal constitution of a high-risk social movement: Affectual ties and solidarity in the Huk Rebellion.” American Sociological Review.Google Scholar
  19. Gordon, Cynthia and James M. Jasper 1996 “Overcoming the 'NIMBY' label: Rhetorical and organizational links for local protesters.” Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 19:153-175.Google Scholar
  20. Gordon, Robert M. 1987 The Structure of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Greenstein, Fred I. 1987 Personality and Politics, new ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gusfield, Joseph R. 1988 “The control of drinking and driving in the United States: A period of transition?” In Michael D. Laurence, John R. Snortum, and Franklin E. Zimring (eds.), Social Control of the Drinking Driver. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  23. Harré, Rom, ed. 1986a The Social Construction of Emotions. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  24. Harré, Rom 1986b “An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint.” In Rom Harré (ed.), The Social Construction of Emotions. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Heise, David R. 1979 Understanding Events. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. 1988 “Affect control theory: Concepts and model.” In Lynn Smith-Lovin and David R. Heise (eds.), Analyzing Social Interaction. New York: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  27. Hirschman, Albert O. 1992 Shifting Involvements. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hochschild, Arlie Russell 1975 “The sociology of feeling and emotion: Selected possibilities.” In Marcia Millman and Rosabeth Moss Kanter (eds.), Another Voice. Garden City NY: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  29. 1979 “Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure.” American Journal of Sociology 85:551-575.Google Scholar
  30. 1983 The Managed Heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Jasper, James M. 1997 The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Jasper, James M. and Jane D. Poulsen 1995 “Recruiting strangers and friends: Moral shocks and social networks in animal rights and anti-nuclear protests.” Social Problems 42:493-512.Google Scholar
  33. Johnston, Hank, Enrique Laraña, and Joseph R. Gusfield 1994 “Identities, grievances, and new social movements.” In Enrique Laraña, Hank Johnston, and Joseph R. Gusfield (eds.), New Social Movements. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kahneman, Daniel, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, eds. 1982 Judgment under Uncertainty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Klandermans, Bert 1984 “Mobilization and participation: Social-psychological expansions of resource mobilization theory.” American Sociological Review 49:583-600.Google Scholar
  36. Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen and Stephen Robert Couch 1990 The Real Disaster Is Above Ground. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lane, Robert E. 1959 Political Life. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  38. 1962 Political Ideology. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
  39. Lasswell, Harold D. 1930 Psychopathology and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Lofland, John 1985 Protest. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. 1996 Social Movement Organizations. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  42. Lofland, Lyn H. 1985 “The social shaping of emotion: The case of grief.” Symbolic Interaction 8:171-190.Google Scholar
  43. Lutz, Catherine A. 1988 Unnatural Emotions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. Marsh, Alan 1977 Protest and Political Consciousness. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  45. McAdam, Doug 1982 Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. McNeill, William H. 1995 Keeping Together in Time: Dance and Drill in Human History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. McPhail, Clark 1991 The Myth of the Madding Crowd. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  48. Melucci, Alberto 1996 Challenging Codes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Morris, Aldon D. 1984 The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  50. Oakley, Justin 1992 Morality and the Emotions. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg, ed. 1980 Explaining Emotions. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  52. Rosenberg, M. J. 1956 “Cognitive structure and attitudinal affect.” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 53:367-372.Google Scholar
  53. Rupp, Leila J. and Verta Taylor 1987 Survival in the Doldrums. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Scheff, Thomas J. 1994 Bloody Revenge: Emotions, Nationalism, and War. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, Christian 1996 Resisting Reagan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  56. Smith, Jonathan Z. 1987 To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  57. Snow, David and Robert D. Benford 1988 “Ideology, frame resonance, and participant mobilization.” International Social Movement Research 1:197-212.Google Scholar
  58. 1992 “Master frames and cycles of protest.” In Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller (eds.), Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Snow, David A., E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford 1986 “Frame alignment processes, micro-mobilization, and movement participation.” American Sociological Review 51:464-481.Google Scholar
  60. Snow, David A., Louis A. Zurcher, Jr., and Sheldon Ekland-Olson 1980 “Social networks and social movement: A microstructural approach to differential recruitment.” American Sociological Review 45:787-801.Google Scholar
  61. Solomon, Robert C. 1976 The Passions. New York: Doubleday-Anchor.Google Scholar
  62. Stinchcombe, Arthur L. 1969 “Review of economy and society.” American Journal of Sociology 75.Google Scholar
  63. Tarrow, Sidney 1994 Power in Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Taylor, Verta 1989 “Social movement continuity: The women's movement in abeyance.” American Sociological Review 54:761-775.Google Scholar
  65. 1996 Rock-a-by Baby. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Taylor, Verta and Nancy Whittier 1995 “Analytical approaches to social movement culture: The culture of the women's movement.” In Hank Johnston and Bert Klandermans (eds.), Social Movements and Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  67. Thoits, Peggy A. 1985 “Self-labeling processes in mental illness: The role of emotional deviance.” American Journal of Sociology 92:221-249.Google Scholar
  68. 1989 “The sociology of the emotions.” Annual Review of Sociology 15:317-342.Google Scholar
  69. 1990 “Emotional deviance: Research agendas.” In Theodore D. Kemper (ed.), Research Agendas in the Sociology of Emotions. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  70. Turner, Ralph H. and Lewis M. Killian 1987 Collective Behavior, 3rd edn. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  71. Vanderford, Marsha L. 1989 “Vilification and social movements: A case study of pro-life and pro-choice rhetoric.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 75:166-182.Google Scholar
  72. Walsh, Edward J. 1981 “Resource mobilization and citizen protest in communities around Three Mile Island.” Social Problems 29:1-21.Google Scholar
  73. 1988 “New dimensions of social movements: The high-level waste-siting controversy.” Sociological Forum 3:586-605.Google Scholar
  74. Walsh, Edward J., Rex Warland, and D. Clayton Smith 1993 “Backyards, NIMBYs, and incinerator sitings: Implications for social movement theory.” Social Problems 40:25-38.Google Scholar
  75. Watters, Pat 1971 Down to Now. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  76. Zonabend, Françoise 1993 The Nuclear Peninsula. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Jasper
    • 1
  1. 1.New YorkUSA;

Personalised recommendations