American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.
Ames, G. M., & Janes, C. (1992). A cultural approach to conceptualizing alcohol and the workplace. Alcohol Health & Research World, 16, 112-119.
Beaton, R. D., Egan, K., Kogan, H. N., & Morrison, K. N. (1991). Self-reported symptoms of stress with temporomandibular disorders. Comparisons with healthy men and women. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 65, 289-293.
Beaton, R. D., & Murphy, S. A. (1993). Sources of occupational stress among fire fighters and paramedics and correlations with job-related outcomes. Prehospital and Emergency Medicine, 8, 140-150.
Beaton, R. D., & Murphy, S. A. (1995). Secondary traumatic stress of crisis workers: research implications. In C. Figley (Ed.), Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those Who Treat the Traumatized. (pp. 51-81). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Beaton, R. D., Murphy, S. A., Pike, K. C., & Corneil, W. (1997). Social support and network conflict in firefighters and paramedics. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 19, 297-313.
Beaton, R. D., Murphy, S. A., Pike, K. C., & Jarrett, M. (1995). Stress symptom factors in fire fighters and paramedics. In S. Sauter & L. Murphy (Eds.), Organizational Risk Factors for Job Stress (pp. 227-245). Washington, DC: APA Press.
Bennett, J. B., & Lehman, W. E. K. (1996). Employee attitude crystallization and substance use policy: test of a classification scheme. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 831-864.
Bennett, J. B., & Lehman, W. E. K. (1998). Workplace drinking climate, stress, and problem indicators: assessing the influence of teamwork. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59, 608-618.
Berkman, L., & Symes, L. (1979). Social networks, host resistance and mortality: a nine year follow-up of study of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186-202.
Blum, T. C., Roman, P. M., & Martin, J. K. (1993). Alcohol consumption and work performance. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 54, 61-70.
Boxer, P., & Wild, D. (1993). Psychological distress and alcohol use among fire fighters. Scandinavian Journal of Environmental Health, 19, 121-125.
Broadhead, N., Kaplan, B., James, S., Wagner, E., Schoenbach, V., Grimson, R., Heyden, S., Tibbling, G., & Gehlbach, S. (1983). The epidemiological evidence for a relationship between social support and health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117, 521-537.
Chilcoat, H. D., & Breslau, N. (1998). Investigations of causal pathways between PTSD and drug use disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 827-840.
Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., & Frone, M. R. (1990). Work stress and alcohol effects: a test of stress-induced drinking. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 260-276.
Corneil, W. (1995). Traumatic stress and organizational strain in the fire service. In L. Murphy, J. Hurrell, Jr., S. Sauter, & G. Keita (Eds.), Job Stress Interventions (pp. 185-198). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.
Corneil, W., Beaton, R. D., Murphy, S. A., Johnson, L. C., & Pike, K. (1999). Exposure to traumatic incidents and prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptomatology in urban fire fighters in two countries. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 131-141.
Dunning, C., & Silva, M. (1980). Disaster-induced trauma in rescue workers. Victimology, 5, 287-297.
Eckenrode, J., & Gore, S. (1990). Stress and coping at the boundary of work and family. In J. Eckenrode & S. Gore (Eds.), Stress Between Work and Family (pp. 1-16). New York: Plenum Press.
Figley, C. (1995). Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress Disorder in Those Who Treat the Traumatized. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Fillmore, K. M. (1992). Occupational drinking subcultures: an exploratory epidemiological study. In P. M. Roman (Ed.), Alcohol Problems Intervention in the Workplace (pp. 77-94). New York: Quorum Books.
Fleming, M., & Barry, K. (1991). A three-sample text of a masked alcohol screening questionnaire. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 26, 81-91.
Greenberg, E. S., & Grunberg, L. (1995). Work alienation and problem alcohol behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 83-102.
Herbeson, R., Rando, T., & Plant, T. (1984). National EMS Burnout Survey. Journal of Emergency Medical Services, 13, 43-47.
Hoffmann, J. P., Brittingham, A., & Larson, C. (1996). Drug Use Among U.S. Workers: Prevalence and Trends by Occupation and Industry Categories. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 96-3089.
Holmes, T., & Rahe, R. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.
Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). The Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209-218.
Hughes, P. H., Brandenburg, N., Baldwin, D. C., et al. (1992). Prevalence of substance use among U.S. physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 2333-2339.
IAFF (1995). International Association of Firefighters 1995 Death & Injury Survey. Washington, DC: IAFF.
IAFF (1997). The Fire Service Joint Labor Management Wellness-Fitness Initiative. Washington, DC: IAFF.
Karasek, R., Theorell, T., Schwartz, J., Schnall, P., Pieper, C., & Michaela, J. (1988). Job characteristics in relation to the nonrelevance of myocardial infarction in the U.S. Health Examination Survey (HES) and the Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES). American Journal of Public Health, 78, 910-918.
Kraft, J. M., Blum, T. C., Martin, J. K., & Roman, P. M. (1993). Drinking patterns and the gender mix of occupations: evidence from a national survey of American workers. Journal of Substance Abuse, 5, 157-174.
Leigh, J. (1988). Job Related Deaths in 347 Occupations. San Jose: San Jose University Press.
Mayfield, D., McLeod, G., & Hall, P. (1974). The CAGE Questionnaire: validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 1121-1123.
McFarlane, A. C. (1998). Epidemiological evidence about the relationship between PTSD and alcohol abuse: the nature of the association, Addictive Behaviors, 23, 813-825.
Mitchell, J. T., & Bray, G. (1990). Emergency Service Stress. New Jersey: Brady.
Monk, T. H. (1990). Shiftworker performance. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 5, 183-198.
Parker, D. A., & Harford, T. C. (1992) The epidemiology of alcohol consumption and dependence across occupations in the United States. Alcohol Health & Research World, 16, 97-105.
Roman, P., & Trice, H. M. (1970). The development of deviant drinking behavior: occupational risk factors. Archives of Environmental Health, 20, 424-435.
Selye, H. (1950). The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress. Montreal: Acta Inc.
Tepas, D. I., & Carvalhais, A. B. (1990). Sleep patterns of shiftworkers. In A. J. Scott (Ed.), Shiftwork, Occupational Medicine, State of the Art Reviews (pp. ). Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus.
Trinkoff, A. M., & Storr, C. L. (1998). Substance use among nurses: differences between specialties. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 581-584.
Ullman, S. E., & Siegel, J. M. (1996). Traumatic events and physical health in a community sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 703-720.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1990). Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry (Bulletin No. 239). Washington, DC.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1995). National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Bulletin No. 315). Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Agriculture (1992). The Food Guide Pyramid (Home and Garden Bulletin No. 252). Hyattsville, MD: Human Nutrition Information Service.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1990). The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. Rockville, MD: Surgeon General's Office on Smoking and Health.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1996). Physical Activity and Health A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Wiley, J. A., & Camacho, T. C. (1980). Life-style and future health: evidence from the Alameda County study. Preventive Medicine, 9, 1-21.