Hunter DJ, Willett WC (1996) Nutrition and breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 7: 56–68.
Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, Adami H-O, et al. (1996) Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer-a pooled analysis. N Engl J Med 334: 356–361.
Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P (2000) Metaanalysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer 36: 636–646.
World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (1997) Food, nutrition and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun S-S, et al. (2001) Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 285: 769–776.
Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN (1995) Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1681–1685.
Brinton LA, Benichou J, Gammon MD, Brogan DR, Coates R, Schoenberg JB (1997) Ethnicity and variation in breast cancer incidence. Int J Cancer 73: 349–355.
Tavani A, Braga C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Russo A, Franceschi S (1997) Attributable risks for breast cancer in Italy: education, family history and reproductive and hormonal factors. Int J Cancer 70: 159–163.
Potischman N, Carroll RJ, Iturria SJ, et al. (1999) Comparison of the 60–and 100–item NCI-block questionnaires with validation data. Nutr Cancer 34: 70–75.
Brinton LA, Daling JR, Liff JM, et al. (1995) Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk amongyoung er women. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 827–835.
Swanson CA, Coates RJ, Schoenberg JB, et al. (1996) Body size and breast cancer risk amongwomen under age 45 years. Am J Epidemiol 143: 698–706. 944 N. Potischman et al.
Swanson CA, Coates RJ, Malone KE, et al. (1997) Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk amongwomen under age 45 years. Epidemiology 8: 231–237.
Waksberg J (1978) Sampling methods for random digit dialing. J Am Stat Assoc 73: 40–46.
Potischman N, Swanson CA, Coates RJ, et al. (1997) Dietary relationships with early onset (under age 45) breast cancer in a case-control study in the United States: influence of chemotherapy treatment. Cancer Causes Control 8: 713–721.
Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L (1986) A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 124: 453–469.
Coates RJ, Eley JW, Block G, et al. (1991) An evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for assessingdietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamin E amonglow-income black women. Am J Epidemiol 134: 658–671.
Breslow NE, Day NE (1980) Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, Vol. I: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC (1990) Correction of logistic regression relative risk estimates and confidence intervals for measurement error: the case of multiple covariates measured with error. Am J Epidemiol 132: 734–745.
Boyd NF, Martin LJ, Noffel M, Lockwood GA, Trichler DL (1993) A meta-analysis of studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer 68: 627–636.
Howe GR, Hirohata T, Hislop TG, et al. (1990) Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 82: 561–569.
Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Adami H-O, et al. (2001) Types of dietary fat and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Int J Cancer 92: 767–774.
Toniolo P, Riboli E, Protta F, Charrel M, Cappa APM (1989) Calorie-providingnutrient s and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81: 278–286.
Katsouyanni K, Willett W, Trichopoulos D, et al. (1988) Risk of breast cancer amongGreek women in relation to nutrient intake. Cancer 61: 181–185.
Rohan TE, McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA (1988) A populationbased case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Australia. Am J Epidemiol 128: 478–489.
Trichopoulou A, Katsouyanni K, Stuver S, et al. (1995) Consumption of olive oil and specific food groups in relation to breast cancer risk in Greece. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 110–116.
Hirose K, Tajima K, Hamajima N, et al. (1995) A large-scale, hospital-based case-control study of risk factors of breast cancer accordingto menopausal status. Jpn J Cancer Res 86: 146–154.
Lubin JH, Burns PE, Blot WJ, Ziegler RG, Lees AW (1981) Dietary factors and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 28: 685–689.
Landa M-C, Frago N, Tres A (1994) Diet and the risk of breast cancer in Spain. Eur J Cancer Prev 3: 313–320.
Richardson S, Gerber M, Cene´ e S (1991) The role of fat, animal protein and some vitamin consumption in breast cancer: a case control study in southern France. Int J Cancer 48: 1–9.
Franceschi S, Favaero A, La Vecchia C, et al. (1995) Influence of food groups and food diversity on breast cancer risk in italy. Int J Cancer 63: 785–789.
Franceschi S, La Vecchia C, Russo A, Negri E, Favero A, Decarli A (1997) Low-risk diet for breast cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6: 875–879.
Burley VJ (1998) Sugar consumption and human cancer in sites other than the digestive tract. Eur J Cancer Prev 7: 253–277.
Kaaks R (1996) Nutrition, hormones, and breast cancer: is insulin the missinglink? Cancer Causes Control 7: 605–625.
Kazer RR (1995) Insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor I and breast cancer: a hypothesis. Int J Cancer 62: 403–406.
Stoll BA (1996) Nutrition and breast cancer risk: can an effect via insulin resistance be demonstrated? Breast Cancer Res Treat 38: 239–246.
Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N, Yasuda K (2000) Relations of insulin resistance and serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-bindingg lobulin to potential breast cancer risk factors. Jpn J Cancer Res 91: 948–953.
Poretsky L (1991) On the paradox of insulin-induced hyperandrogenism in insulin-resistant states. Endocr inol Rev 12: 3–13.
Barbieri RL, Smith S, Ryan KJ (1988) The role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of ovarian hyperandrogenism. Fertil Steril 50: 197–212.
Bruning PF, Bonfrer JMG, Van Moord PAH, Hart AAM, De Jong-Bakker M, Nooijen WJ (1992) Insulin resistance and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 52: 511–516.
Del Giudice ME, Fantus IG, Ezzat S, McKeown-Eyssen G, Page D, Goodwin PJ (1998) Insulin and related factors in premenopausal breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 47: 111–120.
Toniolo P, Bruning PF, Akhmedkhanov A, et al. (2000) Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and breast cancer. Int J Cancer 88: 828–832.
Manjer J, Kaaks R, Riboli E, Berglund G (2001) Risk of breast cancer in relation to anthropometry, blood pressure, blood lipids and glucose metabolism: a prospective study within the MalmöPreventive Project. Eur J Cancer Prev 10: 33–42.
Peyrat JP, Bonneterre J, Hecquet B, et al. (1993) Plasma insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in human breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 29A: 492–497.
Bruning PF, Van Doorn J, Bonfrèr JMG, et al. (1995) Insulinlike growth-factor-binding protein 3 is decreased in early-stage operable pre-menopausal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 62: 266–270.
Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. (1998) Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of breast cancer. Lancet 351: 1393–1396.
Bohlke K, Cramer DW, Trichopoulos D, Mantzoros CS (1998) Insulin-like growth factor-I in relation to premenopausal ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Epidemiology 9: 570–573.
Byrne C, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Pollak M, Hankinson SE (2000) Plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-bindingprotein 3, and mammographic density. Cancer Res 60: 3744–3748.
Giovannucci E (2001) Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and colon cancer: a review of the evidence. J Nutr 131: 3109S-3120S.