Human Ecology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 385–418 | Cite as

Biogeographical Archaeology in the Eastern North American Arctic

  • William W. Fitzhugh


Environmental conditions of the Eastern North American Arctic make this region suitable for biogeographical approaches to culture. Although composed of a vast assemblage of large and small islands, the Eastern Arctic differs from other “oceanic” environments where modern biogeographical work has been pioneered. This paper outlines conditions which make the Eastern Arctic suitable for biogeographical study and considers the nature of “islands” as analytical constructs rather than as discrete entities. Biogeographical concepts are considered in relation to the “core-periphery model” that has been the organizing principle for interpreting patterns of Eastern Arctic culture history. Abstractions, aspects, and conclusions reached from these studies outline some of the opportunities available for application of more directed anthropological biogeographical work in the future.

arctic biogeography culture ecology 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amorosi, T., Buckland, P., Dugmore, A., Ingimundarson, J. H., and McGovern, T. H. (1997). Raiding the landscape: Human impact in the Scandinavian North Atlantic. Human Ecology 25: xxx-xxx.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, J. T., Mode, W. N., and Davis, P. T. (1980). Holocene climate based in pollen transfer functions, eastern Canadian Arctic. Arctic and Alpine Research 12: 4-64.Google Scholar
  3. Anthony, D. W. (1990). Migration in archaeology: The baby and the bathwater. American Anthropologist 92: 895-914.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, C. (1981). The Lagoon Site (OjRl-3): Implications for Paleoeskimo Interactions. National Museums of Canada, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 107, National Museum of Man, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  5. Bandi, H.-G. (1969). Eskimo Prehistory (translated by Anne E. Keep). Studies of Northern Peoples, 2, University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  6. Banfield, A. W. F. (1961). A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou Genus Rangifer. National Museum of Canada Bulletin, 177, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  7. Banfield, A. W. F. (1974). The Mammals of Canada. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  8. Banfield, A. F. W., and Tenner, J. S. (1958). A preliminary study of the Ungava caribou. Journal of Mammalogy 39(4): 560-573.Google Scholar
  9. Barr, W. (1944). The Eighteenth Century trade between the ships of the Hudson's Bay Company and the Hudson Strait Inuit. Arctic 47: 236-246.Google Scholar
  10. Bielawski, E. (1988). Paleoeskimo variability: The early Arctic Small Tool tradition in the Central Canadian Arctic. American Antiquity 53(1): 52-74.Google Scholar
  11. Bigelow, G. F. (presenter) (1991). The Norse of the North Atlantic. Acta Archaeologica 61 (Oslo).Google Scholar
  12. Bird, J. B. (1967). The Physiography of Arctic Canada. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  13. Bradley, R., and Jones, P. D. (eds.) (1992). Climate Since A.D. 1500. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  14. Buckland, P.C., Amarosi, T., Barrow, L. K., Dugmore, A. J., Mayewski, J. A., McGovern, T. H., Ogilvie, A. E. G., Sadler, J. P., and Skidmore, P. (1996). Bioarchaeological and climatological evidence for the fate of Norse farmers in medieval Greenland. Antiquity 70(267): 88-96.Google Scholar
  15. Burch, E. S., Jr. (1972). The caribou/wild reindeer as a human resource. American Antiquity 37(3): 339-368.Google Scholar
  16. Corbett, D. G., Lefevre, C., and Siegel-Causey, D. (1997). The Western Aleutians: Cultural isolation and environmental change. Human Ecology 25: xxx-xxx.Google Scholar
  17. Cox, S. (1977). Prehistoric Settlement and Culture Change at Okak, Labrador. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University. Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. Cox, S. (1978). Palaeo-Eskimo occupations of the North Labrador coast. Arctic Anthropology 15(2): 96-118.Google Scholar
  19. Dansgaard, W., Johnson, S. J., Mollar, J., and Langway, C. C. (1969). One thousand centuries of climatic record from Camp Century on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 199(3909): 377-381.Google Scholar
  20. Dekin, A. A., Jr. (1972). Climate change and cultural change: A correlative study from the Eastern Arctic. In Polar Notes (vol. 12) Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, pp. 11-31.Google Scholar
  21. Dekin, A. A., Jr. (1978). Arctic Archaeology: A Bibliography and History. Garland Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Diamond, J. M. (1977). Colonization cycles in man and beast. World Archeology 8: 249-261.Google Scholar
  23. Dumond, D. E. (1977). The Eskimos and Aleuts. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  24. Dunbar, M. (1960). The evolution of stability in marine environments: Natural selection at the level of the ecosystem. American Naturalist 94: 129-136.Google Scholar
  25. Dunbar, M. (1968). Ecological Development in Polar Regions. A Case Study in Evolution. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  26. Dunbar, M. (1970). Marine ecosystem development in polar regions. In Steele, J. H. (ed.), Marine Food Chains. Proceedings of a Symposium, Aarhus, Denmark, July 1968. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 528-534.Google Scholar
  27. Dunbar, M. (1985). Sea ice and climate change in the Canadian Arctic since 1800. Syllogeus 55. In Harington, C. R. (ed.), Climate Change in Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, pp. 107-119.Google Scholar
  28. Dyke, A. S., and Prest, V. K. (1987). Late Wisconsinian and Holocene history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire 41: 237-263.Google Scholar
  29. Dyke, A. S., Morris, T. F., and Green, D. E. C. (1991). Postglacial tectonic and sea level history of the Central Canadian Arctic. Geological Society of Canada Bulletin 397.Google Scholar
  30. Elton, C. S. (1942). Voles, Mice, and Lemmings. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  31. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1972). Environmental Archeology and Cultural Systems in Hamilton Inlet, Labrador. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, 16, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  32. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1974). Arctic Prehistory: Demographic Patterns in a Marginal Environment. Paper delivered to Smithsonian Conference on Biogeography and Anthropology.Google Scholar
  33. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1975). A comparative approach to northern maritime adaptations. In Fitzhugh, W. W. (ed.), Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone, Mouton, The Hague, pp. 339-386.Google Scholar
  34. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1976). Environmental factors in the evolution of Dorset culture. In Maxwell, M. S. (ed.), Pre-Dorset--Dorset Problems. Memoir of the Society of American Archaeology 33, pp. 139-149.Google Scholar
  35. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1977). Population movement and culture change on the central Labrador coast. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 288: 481-497.Google Scholar
  36. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1980). A review of Palaeo-Eskimo culture history in southern Labrador and Newfoundland. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 4(1–2): 21-31.Google Scholar
  37. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1984). Palaeo-Eskimo cultures of Greenland. In Damas, D. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Arctic (vol. 5). Smithsonian Institution, Government Printing Office, Washington, pp. 528-539.Google Scholar
  38. Fitzhugh, W. W. (1987). Archaeological ethnicity and the prehistory of Labrador. In Auger, A., Glass, M. F., MacEachern, S., and McCartney, P. (eds.), Ethnicity and Culture. Chacmool Archaeological Society, Calgary, pp. 141-153.Google Scholar
  39. Fitzhugh, W. W., and Lamb, H. (1984). Vegetation history and culture change in Labrador prehistory. Journal of Arctic and Alpine Research 17(4): 357-370.Google Scholar
  40. Fosberg, R. (ed.) (1963). Man's Place in the Island Ecosystem. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  41. Fredskild, B. (1967). Postglacial plant succession and climatic changes in a West Greenland Bog. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology 4: 113-127.Google Scholar
  42. Fredskild, B. (1969). A postglacial standard pollen diagram from Peary Land, North Greenland. Pollen et Spores 11(3): 573-583.Google Scholar
  43. Fredskild, B. (1972). Palynological evidence for Holocene climatic changes in Greenland. In Vasari, Y., Hyvarinen, H., and Hicks, S. (eds.), Climatic Changes in Arctic Areas During the Past Ten Thousand Years. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, ser. A. Geologica 1, Oulu, pp. 277-306.Google Scholar
  44. Freeman, M. M. R. (1984). Arctic ecosystems. In Damas, D. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians. Volume 5: Arctic. Government Printing Office, Washington, pp. 36-48.Google Scholar
  45. Hall, E. (ed.) (1989). People and Caribou in the Northwest Territories. Department of Renewable Resources, Yellowknife.Google Scholar
  46. Harington, C. R. (ed.) (1981). Climate Change in Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  47. Harp, E. Jr. (1958). Prehistory in the Dismal Lake area, N.W.T., Canada. Arctic 11(4): 219-249.Google Scholar
  48. Harp, E. Jr. (1964). The cultural affinities of the Newfoundland Dorset Eskimos. Anthropological Series 67, National Museum of Canada Bulletin 200 (Ottawa).Google Scholar
  49. Harp, E. Jr. (1976). Dorset settlement patterns in Newfoundland and southeastern Hudson Bay. In Maxwell, M. (ed.), Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Palaeo-Eskimo Problems. Memoir of the Society of American Archaeology 31, Salt Lake City, pp. 119-138.Google Scholar
  50. Helmer, J. (1991). The Palaeo-Eskimo prehistory of the North Devon Lowlands. Arctic 44(4): 301-317.Google Scholar
  51. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. In Johnson, R. F., Frank, P. F., and Michener, C. D. (eds.), Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, (Vol. 4). Palo Alto, pp. 1-23.Google Scholar
  52. Hutchinson, G. E. (1978). An Introduction to Population Ecology. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  53. Irwin, G. (1992). The Prehistoric Exploration and Colonization of the Pacific. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  54. Jordan, R. H. (1975). Pollen diagrams from Hamilton Inlet, Central Labrador, and their environmental implications for the Northern Maritime Archaic. Arctic Anthropology 12(2): 92-116.Google Scholar
  55. Jordan, R. H. (1979). Inugsuk revisited: An alternative view of Neo-Eskimo chronology and culture change in Greenland. In McCartney, A. (ed.), Thule Eskimo culture: An Anthropological Retrospective. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper 88, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 149-170.Google Scholar
  56. Kaplan, S. A. (1976). Ethnological and biogeographical significance of pottery sherds from Missan Island, Papua New Guinea. Fieldiana 66(3). Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History.Google Scholar
  57. Kaplan, S. A. (1983). Economic and Social Change in Labrador Neo-Eskimo Culture. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr.Google Scholar
  58. Kaplan, S. A. (1985). European goods and socio-economic change in Early Labrador Inuit society. In Fitzhugh, W. W. (ed.), Cultures in contact: The European Impact on Native Cultural Institutions in Eastern North America, A.D. 1000–1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 45-69.Google Scholar
  59. Keegan, W. F. (1995). Modeling dispersal in the prehistoric West Indies. World Archaeology 26: 400-420.Google Scholar
  60. Keller, C. (1991). Vikings in the West Atlantic: A model of Norse Greenlandic Medieval society. The Norse of the North Atlantic. Acta Archaeologica 61: 126-141 (Oslo).Google Scholar
  61. Kelsall, J. P. (1968). The migratory Barren Ground Caribou of Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service Monograph 3 (Ottawa).Google Scholar
  62. Kingsley, M. C., Ian Stirling, S., and Calvert, W. (1985). The distribution of seals in the Central High Arctic 1980–1982. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42: 1189-1210.Google Scholar
  63. Kirch, P. V. (1986). Polynesian prehistory: Cultural adaptation in island ecosystems. American Scientist 68: 39-48.Google Scholar
  64. Kirch, P. V. (1986). The archaeology of island societies. In Kirch, P. V. (ed.), Island Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-5.Google Scholar
  65. Knuth, E. (1967). Archaeology of the Musk Ox Way. Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Contribution des Centre d'Etude Arctiques and Finno-Scandinaves, 5, Paris.Google Scholar
  66. Larsen, H. (1934). Dodemansbugten: An Eskimo settlement on Clavering Island. Meddelelser om Gronland 102(1) (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  67. Larsen, H., and Meldgaard, J. (1958). Paleo-Eskimo cultures in Disko Bugt, West Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland 161(2) (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  68. Laughlin, W. S. (1975). Aleuts: Ecosystem, Holocene history, and Siberian origin. Science 189(4202): 507-515.Google Scholar
  69. Laughlin, W. S., and Aigner, J. S. (1975). Aleut adaptation and evolution. In Fitzhugh, W. W. (ed.), Prehistoric Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone. The Hague, pp. 181-201.Google Scholar
  70. Laughlin, W. S., and Jorgensen, J. B. (1956). Isolate variation in Greenlandic Eskimo crania. Acta Genetica et Statistica Medica 6: 3-12 (Basel, Switzerland).Google Scholar
  71. LeBlanc, R. (1994). The Crane site and the Lagoon Complex in the Western Canadian Arctic. In Morrison, D., and Pilon, J.-L. (eds.), Threads of Arctic Prehistory: Essays in Honour of William E. Taylor, Jr., Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper, 149. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, pp. 87-102.Google Scholar
  72. Loring, S. (1988). Keeping things whole: Nearly two thousand years of Indian (Innu) occupations in northern Labrador. In Reid, C. S. (ed.), Boreal Forest and Sub-Arctic Archaeology. Occasional Publications of the London Chapter, Ontario Archaeological Society, Vol. 6, London, Ontario, pp. 157-182.Google Scholar
  73. Loring, S. (1992). Princes and Princesses of Ragged Fame: Innu Archaeology and Ethnohistory in Labrador. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  74. Loring, S. (1997). On the trail to the caribou house: Some reflections on Innu caribou hunters in Ntessinan (Labrador). In Jackson, L., and Thacker, P. (eds.), Caribou and reindeer hunters of the Northern Hemisphere. Worldwide Archaeology Series, Avebury Press, London, pp. xx.Google Scholar
  75. Loring, S., and Cox, S. L. (in press). “And they took away the stones of Ramah”: Lithic raw material sourcing and Eastern Arctic archaeology. In History of Eastern Arctic Archaeology: Homage to Elders. Proceedings of the Elders Conference in Eastern Arctic Archaeology, Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  76. Loring, S., and Cox, S. L. (1986). The Postville Pentacostal Dorset site, Kaipokak Bay, Labrador. In Tuck, J. A. Jr. (ed.), Palaeo-Eskimo Cultures of Newfoundland, Labrador, and Ungava. Reports in Archaeology. 1. Memorial University, St. John's, pp. 65-94.Google Scholar
  77. McCartney, A. (1975). Maritime adaptations in cold archipelagoes: An analysis of environment and culture in the Aleutian and other island chains. In Fitzhugh, W. W. (ed.), Prehistoric Maritime Adaptations of the Circumpolar Zone. Mouton, The Hague, pp. 281-338.Google Scholar
  78. McCullough, K. M. (1989). The Ruin Islanders: Early Thule culture pioneers in the Eastern High Arctic. Canadian Museum of Civilization Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 141, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  79. McGhee, R. (1969/70). Speculations on climate change and Thule culture history. Folk 11–12: 172-184.Google Scholar
  80. McGhee, R. (1972). Climatic change and the development of Canadian Arctic cultural traditions. In Vasari, Y., Hyvarinen, H., Hicks, S. (eds.), Climatic Changes in Arctic Areas During the Past Ten Thousand Years. Acta Universitatis Ouluensis, ser. A, Geologica 1, Oulu, pp. 39-60.Google Scholar
  81. McGhee, R. (1976). Paleoeskimo occupations of Central and High Arctic Canada. In Maxwell, M. S. (ed.), Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Paleoeskimo Problems. Society of American Archaeology Memoir (Vol. 31), pp. 15-39.Google Scholar
  82. McGhee, R. (1978). Canadian Arctic Prehistory. National Museums of Canada, Van Nostrand, Reinhold, Toronto, New York.Google Scholar
  83. McGhee, R. (1979). The Paleoeskimo Occupations of Port Refuge, High Arctic Canada. National Museums of Man, Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada, Paper 92, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  84. McGhee, R. (1981). The Dorset Occupations in the Vicinity of Port Refuge, High Arctic Canada. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 105, Hull, Quebec.Google Scholar
  85. McGhee, R. (1984). Thule prehistory of Canada. In Damas, D. (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, Arctic (Vol. 5). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, pp. 369-376.Google Scholar
  86. McGhee, R. (1994). Disease and the development of Inuit culture. Current Anthropology 35(5): 565-594.Google Scholar
  87. McGhee, R. (1996). Ancient People of the Arctic. University of British Columbia Press in Association with the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Vancouver.Google Scholar
  88. McGhee, R., and Tuck, J. A., Jr. (1975). An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador. National Museum of Canada, Mercury Series 34, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  89. McGovern, T. H. (1980). Cows, harp seals, and churchbells: Adaptation and extinction in Norse Greenland. Human Ecology 8(3): 245-277.Google Scholar
  90. McGovern, T. H. (1981). The economics of extinction in Norse Greenland. In Wigley, T. M. L., Wigley, Ingram, M. J., and Farmer, G. (eds.), Climate and History, Cambridge, pp. 404-433.Google Scholar
  91. McGovern, T. H. (1990). The archeology of the Norse North Atlantic. Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 331-51.Google Scholar
  92. McGovern, T. H. (1994). Archaeology, Historical Ecology, and Northern System Science: A View from the North Atlantic. Witness the Arctic 2(1), Newsletter of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  93. McGovern, T. H., Bigelow, G. F., Amarosi, T., and Russell, D. (1988). Northern islands, human error, and environmental degradation: A view of social and ecological change in the medieval North Atlantic. Human Ecology 16(3): 225-70.Google Scholar
  94. MacArthur, R. H. (1972). Geographical Ecology. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  95. MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O. (1963). An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17: 373-387.Google Scholar
  96. MacArthur, R. H., and Wilson, E. O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  97. Mary-Rousseliere, G. (1991). Qitdlarssuaq: The Story of a Polar Migration. Wuerz Publishing, Winnepeg.Google Scholar
  98. Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Whitlow, S., Twickler, M. S., Morrison, M. C., Grootes, P. M., Bond, G. C., Alley, R. B., Meese, D. A., Gow, A. J., Taylor, K. C., Ram, M., and Wumkes, M. (1994). Changes in atmospheric circulation and ocean ice cover over the North Atlantic during the last 41,000 years. Science 263: 1747-1751.Google Scholar
  99. Mayewski, P. A., and Bender, M. (1995). The GISP2 Ice Core Record: Paleoclimate Highlights. Reviews of Geophysics Supplement, U.S. National report to the IUGG, pp. 1287-1994.Google Scholar
  100. Mathiassen, T. (1935). Eskimo migrations in Greenland. Geographical Review 25(3): 408-422 (New York).Google Scholar
  101. Maxwell, J. B. (1994). The Climate of the Canadian Arctic Islands and Adjacent Waters (Vol. 2[30]). Environment Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  102. Maxwell, M. S. (1976). Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Paleoeskimo Problems. Society of American Archaeology Memoir 31 (symposium editor).Google Scholar
  103. Maxwell, M. S. (1985). Prehistory of the Eastern Arctic. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  104. Meese, D. A., Gow, A. J., Grootes, P., Mayewski, P. A., Ram, M., Stuiver, M., Taylor, K. C., Waddington, E. D., and Zielinski, G. A. (1994). The accumulation record from the GISP2 core as an indicator of climatic change throughout the Holocene. Science 226: 1680-1682.Google Scholar
  105. Meldgaard, J. (1960). Prehistoric culture sequences in the Eastern Arctic as elucidated by stratified sites at Igloolik. In Wallace, A. (ed.), Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, 1956. Philadelphia, pp. 588-595.Google Scholar
  106. Meldgaard, J. (1962). On the formative period of the Dorset culture. In Campbell, J. M. (ed.), Prehistoric Cultural Relations Between the Arctic and Temperate Zones of North America. Arctic Institute of North America Technical Paper 11, Montreal, pp. 92-95.Google Scholar
  107. Meldgaard, J. (1977). The prehistoric cultures in Greenland: Discontinuities in a marginal area. In Continuity and discontinuity in the Inuit culture of Greenland. Arctic Center, University of Groningen, Groningen, pp. 19-52.Google Scholar
  108. Meldgaard, M. (1983). Resource fluctuations and human subsistence: A zooarcheological and ethnographic investigation of a West Greenland hunting camp. In Brock, J. C., and Grigson, C. (eds.), Animals in Archaeology: Hunters and Their Prey. British Archaeological Reports, International Series, pp. 259-272.Google Scholar
  109. Morrison, D. (1989). Radiocarbon dating the Thule culture. Arctic Anthropology 26(2): 48-77.Google Scholar
  110. Nagle, C. (1984). Lithic Raw Materials Procurement and Exchange in Dorset Culture Along the Labrador Coast. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Brandeis University.Google Scholar
  111. Nagle, C. (1985). Lithic raw materials resource studies in Newfoundland and Labrador: A progress report. In Thomson, J. S., and Thomson, C. (eds.), Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador--1984. Annual Report 5, Historic Resources Division, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's, pp. 86-121.Google Scholar
  112. Nagle, C. (1986). Flaked stone procurement and distribution in Dorset culture sites along the Labrador coast. In Palaeo-Eskimo Cultures in Newfoundland, Labrador, and Ungava. Memorial University of Newfoundland, Reports in Archaeology no. 1, St. John's, pp. 95-110.Google Scholar
  113. Nash, R. (1976). Cultural systems and culture change in the Central Aretic. In Maxwell, M. (ed.), Eastern Arctic Prehistory: Paleoeskimo Problems. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology 31, pp. 159-155.Google Scholar
  114. Nash, R. (ed.) (1983). The Evolution of Maritime Cultures on the Northeast and Northwest Coasts of America. Publication 11, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
  115. Odess, D. P. (1996). Interaction, Adaptation, and Culture Change: Lithic Exchange in Dorset Society, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.Google Scholar
  116. Ogilvie, A. E. J. (1991). Climatic changes in Iceland A.D. c. 865–1598. In Bigelow, G. F. (ed.), The Norse of the North Atlantic. Acta Archaeologica (Vol. 61). Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  117. Park, R. (1993). The Dorset-Thule succession in Arctic North America: Assessing claims for culture contact. American Antiquity 58(2): 203-234.Google Scholar
  118. Plumet, P. (1981). Matieres premieres allochtones et reseau spatial paleoesquimau en Ungava occidental, Arctique Quebecois. Geographie physique et Quaternaire 35(1): 5-17.Google Scholar
  119. Plumet, P. (1986). Questions reflexions concernant la prehistoire de l'Ungava. In Palaeo-Eskimo Cultures in Newfoundland, Labrador, and Ungaga (Vol. 1). Memorial University of Newfoundland, Reports in Archaeology, pp. 151-160.Google Scholar
  120. Plumet, P. (1994). Le Paleoesquimau dans la baie du Diana (Arctique quebecois). In Morrison, D., and Pilon, J.-L. (eds.), Threads of Arctic Prehistory: Essays in Honour of William E. Taylor, Jr. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series Paper, 149, Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa, pp. 103-143.Google Scholar
  121. Plumet, P., and Gangloff, P. (1987). Contribution a l'etude du peuplement prehistorique des cotes du Quebec arctique et de son cadre paleogeographique. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 1(1): 67-90.Google Scholar
  122. Pruitt, W. O. (1960). Behavior of the Barren Ground Caribou. University of Alaska Biological Paper 3, Fairbanks.Google Scholar
  123. Remmert, H. (1980). Arctic Animal Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Renouf, M. A. P. (1994). Two transitional sites at Port aux Choix, Northwestern Newfoundland. In Morrison, D., and Pilon, J.-L. (eds.), Threads of Prehistory: Papers in Honour of William E. Taylor, Jr.. Canadian Museum of Civilization, Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series Paper 149, Ottawa, pp. 165-195.Google Scholar
  125. Riewe, R. (1992). Nunavut Atlas. Circumpolar Research Series 2. Circumpolar Institute and Tungavik Federation of Nunavut, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  126. Ross, W. G. (1975). Whaling and Eskimos: Hudson Bay 1860–1915. National Museums of Canada Publications in Ethnology, 10, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  127. Ross, W. G. (1979). Commercial whaling and Eskimos in the Eastern Canadian Arctic 1819–1920. In McCartney, A. (ed.), Thule Eskimo culture: An anthropological retrospective. National Museum of Man, Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 88, pp. 242-266.Google Scholar
  128. Rowley, S. (1985). Population movements in the Canadian Arctic. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 9(1): 3-22.Google Scholar
  129. Sabo, G. (1991). Long term adaptations among Arctic hunter-gatherers: A case study from south Baffin Island. New York: Garland Press.Google Scholar
  130. Sanders, H. L. (1969). Benthic marine diversity and the stability-time hypothesis. In Diversity and stability in ecological systems. Brookhaven symposia in biology (Vol. 22). Brookhaven: Brookhaven National Laboratory, pp. 71-81.Google Scholar
  131. Schindler, D. L. (1985). Anthropology in the Arctic: A critique of racial typology and normative theory. Current Anthropology 26(4): 475-499.Google Scholar
  132. Schledermann, P. (1976). The effect of climatic change on the style of Thule winter dwellings. Arctic and Alpine Research 8(11): 37-47.Google Scholar
  133. Schledermann, P. (1978). Prehistoric demographic trends in the Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 2: 43-58.Google Scholar
  134. Schledermann, P. (1980). Polynias and prehistoric settlement pattern. Arctic 33(2): 292-302.Google Scholar
  135. Schledermann, P. (1990). Crossroads to Greenland. Arctic Institute of North America, Komatik Series 2, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  136. Schledermann, P. (1996). Voices in stone. A personal journey into the Arctic past. Komatik Series, 5. Arctic Institute of North America of the University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  137. Scotter, G. W. (1964). Effects of forest fires on the winter range of Barren Ground Caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildlife Management Bulletin Series 1: 18.Google Scholar
  138. Sergeant, D. E. (1991). Harp seals, ice, and man. In Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 114. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  139. Stager, J. K., and McSkimming, R. J. (1984). Physical environment. In Damas, D. (ed.), Handbook of American Indians. Arctic (Vol. 5). Government Printing Office, Washington, pp. 27-35.Google Scholar
  140. Steadman, D. W. (1995). Prehistoric extinctions of Pacific Island birds: Biodiversity meets zooarchaeology. Science 267: 1123-1131.Google Scholar
  141. Steensby, H. P. (1917). An anthropogeographic study of the origin of the Eskimo culture. Meddelelser om Gronland 53(2) (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  142. Stefansson, V. (1913). The distribution of human and animal life in western Arctic America. Geographical Journal 41(5): 449-459.Google Scholar
  143. Stirling, I., and Cleator, H. (eds.) (1981). Polynias in the Canadian Arctic. Canadian Wildlife Service, Occasional Paper 45, Environment Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  144. Sutton, D. (1982). Towards the recognition of convergent cultural adaptations in the sub-Antarctic zone. Current Anthropology 23(1): 77-97.Google Scholar
  145. Taylor, W. E., Jr. (1963). Hypotheses on the origin of Canadian Thule culture. American Antiquity 28: 456-464.Google Scholar
  146. Taylor, W. E., Jr. (1966). An archaeological perspective on Eskimo economy. Antiquity 40(158): 114-120.Google Scholar
  147. Taylor, W. E., Jr. (1967). Summary of archaeological field work on Banks and Victoria Islands, Arctic Canada, 1965. Arctic Anthropology 4(1): 221-243.Google Scholar
  148. Taylor, W. E., Jr. (1968). The Arnapik and Tyara sites. An archaeological study of Dorset culture origins. Memoir of the Society for American Archaeology 22.Google Scholar
  149. Terrell, J. (1977a). Geographic systems and human diversity in the North Solomons. World Archaeology 9: 62-81.Google Scholar
  150. Terrell, J. (1977b). Human biogeography in the Solomon Islands. In Fieldiana Anthropology 68(1). Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.Google Scholar
  151. Terrell, J. (1986). Prehistory in the Pacific Islands. A study of variation in language, customs, and human biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  152. Tuck, J. A., Jr. (1975). Prehistory of Saglek Bay, Labrador: Archaic and Paleo-Eskimo occupations. National Museums of Canada. Archaeological Survey of Canada Mercury Series 32 (Ottawa).Google Scholar
  153. Tuck, J. A., Jr., and Pastore, R. (1985). A nice place to visit...but: Prehistoric human extinction on the island of Newfoundland. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 9(1): 69-80.Google Scholar
  154. Tuck, J. A., Jr., and Fitzhugh, W. W. (1986). Palaeo-Eskimo traditions of Newfoundland and Labrador: A re-appraisal. In Palaeo-Eskimo cultures in Newfoundland, Labrador, and Ungava. Memorial University of Newfoundland Reports in Archaeology, St. John's, pp. 161-167.Google Scholar
  155. Vibe, C. (1967). Arctic animals in relation to climatic fluctuations. Meddelelser om Gronland 170: 5 (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  156. Vibe, C. (1970). The Arctic ecosystem influenced by fluctuations in sun-spots and drift-ice movements. In Fuller, W. A., and Kevan, P. G. (eds.), Productivity and conservation in northern circumpolar lands. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Publications, N.S. 16, Morges, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  157. Wallace, B. L. (1991). L'Anse aux Meadows: Gateway to Vinland. In Bigelow, G. (ed.), The Norse of the North Atlantic. Acta Archaeologica 61: 166-197 (Copenhagen).Google Scholar
  158. Wobst, M. (1977). Stylistic behavior and information exchange. In Cleland, C. (ed.), Papers for the Director: Research essays in honor of James B. Griffin. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, pp. 317-342.Google Scholar
  159. Yesner, D. (1980). Maritime hunter-gatherers: Ecology and prehistory. Current Anthropology 21: 727-750.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • William W. Fitzhugh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Artic Studies CenterWashington, D.C

Personalised recommendations