Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 183–207 | Cite as

Providing a Rationale in an Autonomy-Supportive Way as a Strategy to Motivate Others During an Uninteresting Activity

  • Johnmarshall Reeve
  • Hyungshim Jang
  • Pat Hardre
  • Mafumi Omura


When motivating others during uninteresting activities, people typically use extrinsic contingencies that promote controlling forms of extrinsic motivation. In contrast, we investigated a motivational strategy that could support another person's capacity to personally endorse and value the effort he or she put forth during the uninteresting activity. That strategy is the provision of an externally provided rationale when communicated in an autonomy-supportive way. In two studies, we tested and found support for a motivational mediation model, based on self-determination theory, in which the presence of such a rationale (vs. its absence) adds to participants' identification with the task's personal value which, in turn, explains participants' subsequent effort. These studies suggest that extrinsically motivated behaviors can become self-determined through the process of identification and that the promotion of this identification experience depends on the presence of a rationale that is communicated in an autonomy-supportive way.

internalization identified regulation extrinsic motivation rationale self-determination autonomy support 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnmarshall Reeve
    • 1
  • Hyungshim Jang
    • 1
  • Pat Hardre
    • 2
  • Mafumi Omura
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Psychological and Quantitative FoundationsUniversity of IowaIowa City
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of OklahomaNorman

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