Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 47, Issue 9–10, pp 443–452 | Cite as

Gender Role Development in Japanese Culture: Diminishing Gender Role Differences in a Contemporary Society

  • Yoko Sugihara
  • Emiko Katsurada
Article

Abstract

This paper presents the development of the Japanese Gender Role Index (JGRI) and Japanese men's and women's self-ratings on the scale. Two hundred ninety-six Japanese words that describe masculine and feminine characteristics were gathered. Examination of endorsements by 200 Japanese participants indicated 66 items as socially desirable characteristics for either men or women in the society. The validation process, including social desirability ratings, factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis, identified 2 subscales with 10 items for each. Internal consistency and the means and standard deviations of social desirability ratings for the subscales were also examined. Self-ratings on the JGRI by 423 Japanese participants showed that there was no significant difference between men and women on feminine and masculine characteristics. It was also found that both men and women possessed an equivalent amount of masculine and feminine characteristics.

gender roles Japanese masculinity femininity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Arichi, T. (1993). Nihon no kazoku ha kawattaka [Have Japanese families changed?]. Tokyo: Yuhikaku.Google Scholar
  2. Azuma, K. (1979). Seisa no syakai shinri gaku [Social psychology of gender]. Tokyo: Dainippon Toshyo.Google Scholar
  3. Basow, S. A. (1984). Cultural variations in sex-typing. Sex Roles, 10 577-585.Google Scholar
  4. Bem, S. L. (1974). The measure of psychological androgyny. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 42 155-162.Google Scholar
  5. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Backtranslation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1 185-216.Google Scholar
  6. Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. J. Lonner & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field method of cross-cultural research (pp. 137-164). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Cabinet Office. (1991). Jyosei no kurashi to shigoto [Women's life and work]. Tokyo: Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance.Google Scholar
  8. Chia, R. C., Moore, J. L., Lam, K. N., Chuang, C. J., & Cheng, B. S. (1994). Cultural differences in gender role attitudes between Chinese and American students. Sex Roles, 31 23-30.Google Scholar
  9. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 24 349-354.Google Scholar
  10. Econimic Planning Agency. (1997). Kokumin Seikatsu Hakusyo [A report on life of Japanese People]. Tokyo: Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance.Google Scholar
  11. Henkasuru kekkonkan [Changing attitude toward marriage]. (1989, July, 8). The Asahi Shinbun, p.4.Google Scholar
  12. Ito, Y. (1978). Seiyakuwari no hyoukani kansuru yenkyuu [Evaluation of sex-roles as a function of sex and role expectation]. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 26 1-11.Google Scholar
  13. Ito, K. (1993). Otoko-rashisa no yukue [Where does masculinity go?]. Tokyo: Shinyosya.Google Scholar
  14. Kashiwagi, K. (1967). Seinenki ni okeru seiyakuwari no ninchi [Cognitive development of gender role identification among adolescence]. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 15 193-202.Google Scholar
  15. Kashiwagi, K. (1972). Seinenki ni okeru seiyakuwari no ninchi II [Cognitive development of gender role identification among adolescence II]. Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology, 20 48-59.Google Scholar
  16. Kito, H. (2000). Jinko kara yomu nihonno rekishi [Japanese history from a point of view of population]. Tokyo: Kodanshya.Google Scholar
  17. Koureika suru jyoseino kekkon nenrei [Delayed marriage among Japanese women]. (1990, June, 25). The Mainichi Shinbun, p.4.Google Scholar
  18. Kriedberg, G., Butcher, A. L., & White, K. M. (1978). Vocational role choice in second-and sixth-grade children. Sex Roles, 4 175-181.Google Scholar
  19. Lara-Cantu, M. A., & Navarro-Arias, R. (1987). Self-descriptions of Mexican college students in response to the Bem Sex Role Inventory and other sex role items. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18 331-344.Google Scholar
  20. Lobel, T. E., Slone, M., & Winch, G. (1997). Masculinity, popularity, and self-esteem among Israeli preadolescent girls. Sex Roles, 36 395-408.Google Scholar
  21. Looft, W. R. (1971). Sex differences in the expression of vocational aspirations by elementary school children. Developmental Psychology, 5 366.Google Scholar
  22. MacKay, W. R., & Miller, C. A. (1982). Relations of socioeconomic status and sex variables to the complexity of worker functions in the occupational choices of elementary school children. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 20 31-39.Google Scholar
  23. Moore, D. (1999). Gender traits and identities in a “masculine” organization: The Israeli police force. Journal of Social Psychology, 139 49-68.Google Scholar
  24. Nakane, C. (1970). Japanese society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Nihon Fujindantai Rengoukai. (1998). Fujin Hakusyo 1998 [Report on Women 1998]. Tokyo: Porupu Syuppan.Google Scholar
  26. Novakovic, T., & Kidd, A. H. (1988). Gender self-concepts in the USA and Yugoslavia. Psychological Reports, 62 611-617.Google Scholar
  27. O'Keefe, E. S. C., & Hyde, J. S. (1983). The development of occupational sex-role stereotypes: The effects of gender stability and age, Sex Roles, 9 481-492.Google Scholar
  28. Otake, S. (1977). “Ie” to jyosei no rekishi [History of “ie” and women]. Tokyo: Kogundo.Google Scholar
  29. Phipps, B. J. (1995). Career dreams of preadolescent students. Journal of Career Development, 22 19-32.Google Scholar
  30. Reischauer, E. O., & Craig, A. M. (1973). Japan: Tradition and transformation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  31. Siegel, C. L. E. (1973). Sex differences in the occupational choices of second grades. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 3 15-19.Google Scholar
  32. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents, Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  33. Sugihara, Y., & Katsurada, E. (1999). Masculinity and femininity in Japanese culture: A pilot study. Sex Roles, 40 635-646.Google Scholar
  34. Sugihara, Y., & Katsurada, E. (2000). Gender-role personality traits in Japanese culture. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24 309-318.Google Scholar
  35. Trice, A. D., Hughes, M. A., Odom, C., Woods, K., & McClellan, N. C. (1995). The origins of children's career aspirations: IV. Testing hypotheses from four theories. Career Development Quarterly, 43 307-322.Google Scholar
  36. Twenge, J. M. (1997). Changes in masculine and feminine traits over time: A meta analysis. Sex Roles, 36 305-325.Google Scholar
  37. Ward, C., & Sethi, R. R. (1986). Cross-cultural validation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory: Malaysian and South Indian research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 17 300-314.Google Scholar
  38. Watanabe, T. (1986). Datsu-dansei no jidai [Eea of postmasculinity]. Tokyo: Keisosybou.Google Scholar
  39. West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 56-75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1990a). Measuring sex stereotypes: A thirty-nation study. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1990b). Sex and psyche: Gender and self viewed cross-culturally. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Williams, J. E., Satterwhite, R. C., & Best, D. L. (1999). Pancultural gender stereotypes revisited: The five-factor model. Sex Roles, 40 513-525.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoko Sugihara
    • 1
  • Emiko Katsurada
    • 2
  1. 1.Long Beach
  2. 2.Akita UniversityAkitaJapan

Personalised recommendations