Advertisement

Behavior Genetics

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 289–298 | Cite as

Sleeptalking in Twins: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Comorbidity

  • Christer Hublin
  • Jaakko Kaprio
  • Markku Partinen
  • Markku Koskenvuo
Article

Abstract

Sleeptalking is usually benign but chronic cases in adults may relate to psychopathology. We hypothesize substantial genetic influences in the liability to sleeptalking and an association between sleeptalking and psychiatric disorders. In 1990 a questionnaire sent to the Finnish Twin Cohort yielded responses from 1298 monozygotic and 2419 dizygotic twin pairs aged 33–60 years. We used structural equation modelling to estimate genetic and environmental components of variance in the liability to sleeptalking. Register data on hospitalization and long-term antipsychotic medication were used to assess psychiatric comorbidity. The occurrence of childhood and adult sleeptalking was highly correlated. A gender difference was only seen in adults, with sleeptalking being more common in males than in females. The proportion of total phenotypic variance in liability to sleeptalking attributed to genetic influences in childhood sleeptalking was 54% (95% CI, 44–62%) in males and 51% (43–58%) in females, and for adults it was 37% (27–46%) among males and 48% (40–56%) among females. An association with psychiatric comorbidity was found only in adult sleeptalking, and it was highest in those with adult-onset sleeptalking (odds ratio, 3.77; 95% CI, 2.32–6.17). Sleeptalking is quite a persistent trait, also being common in adults. There are substantial genetic effects on sleeptalking both in childhood and as adults, which appear to be highly correlated. In adults psychiatric comorbidity is about twice as common in those with frequent sleeptalking, compared to those with infrequent or no sleeptalking, but most cases of sleeptalking are not associated with serious psychopathology.

Sleeptalking genetics twins psychiatry longitudinal studies 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Arkin, A. M. (1966). Sleep-talking: A review. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 143:101–122.Google Scholar
  2. Bixler, E. O., Kales, A., Soldatos, C. R., Kales, J. D., and Healey, S. (1979). Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Am. J. Psychiatry 136:1257–1262.Google Scholar
  3. Broughton, R. J. (1994). Parasomnias. In Chokroverty, S. (ed.), Sleep Disorders Medicine, Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA, pp. 381–399.Google Scholar
  4. Cederlöf, R., Friberg, L., Jonsson, E., and Kaij, L. (1961). Studies on similarity diagnosis in twins with the aid of mailed questionnaires. Acta Genet. Stat. Med. 11:338–362.Google Scholar
  5. Emery, A. E. H. (1986). Methodology in Medical Genetics, Churchill-Livingstone, London.Google Scholar
  6. Fisher, B. E., and Wilson, A. E. (1987). Selected sleep disturbances in school children reported by parents: prevalence, interrelationships, behavioral correlates and parenteral attributions. Percept. Motor Skills 64:1147–1157.Google Scholar
  7. Hublin, C., Kaprio, J., Partinen, M., Koskenvuo, M., Heikkilä, K., Koskimies, S., and Guilleminault, C. (1994). The prevalence of narcolepsy: An epidemiologic study in the Finnish Twin Cohort. Ann. Neurol. 35:709–716.Google Scholar
  8. Hublin, C., Kaprio, J., Partinen, M., Heikkilä, K., and Koskenvuo, M. (1997). Prevalence and genetics of sleepwalking—A population-based twin study. Neurology 48: 177–181.Google Scholar
  9. Hyyppä, M. T., and Kronholm, E. (1987). How Does Finland Sleep, Publications of the Social Insurance Institution, Finland ML 68, Turku.Google Scholar
  10. ICSD—International Classification of Sleep Disorders (1990). Diagnostic and Coding Manual, Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee, American Sleep Disorders Association, Rochester, MN.Google Scholar
  11. Jablon, S., Neel, J. V., Gershowitz, H., and Atkinson, G. F. (1967). The NAS-NRC twin panel: Methods of construction of the panel, zygosity diagnosis and proposed use. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 19:133–161.Google Scholar
  12. Jöreskog, K. G., and Sörbom, D. (1993). Prelis 2 User's Reference Guide, Scientific Software International, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  13. Kahn, A., An de Merckt, C., Rebuffat, E., Mozin, M. J., Sottiaux, M., Blum, D., and Hennart, P. (1989). Sleep problems in healthy preadolescents. Pediatrics 84:542–546.Google Scholar
  14. Kaprio, J., Sarna, S., Koskenvuo, M., and Rantasalo, I. (1978). The Finnish Twin Registry: formation and compilation, questionnaire study, zygosity determination procedures, and research program. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 24(Pt. B):179–184.Google Scholar
  15. Kaprio, J., Koskenvuo, M., and Langinvainio, H. (1987). Genetic influences on use and abuse of alcohol: A study of 5638 adult Finnish twin brothers. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 11:349–356.Google Scholar
  16. Keskimäki, I., and Aro, S. (1991). Accuracy of data on diagnosis, procedures and accidents in the Finnish hospital discharge register. Int. J. Health Sci. 2:15–21.Google Scholar
  17. Klackenberg, G. (1987). Incidence of parasomnias in children in a general population. In Gulleminault, C. (ed.), Sleep and Its Disorders in Children, Raven Press, New York, pp. 99–114.Google Scholar
  18. Koskenvuo, M., Langinvainio, H., Kaprio, J., Lönnqvist, J., and Tienari, P. (1984). Psychiatric hospitalization in twins. Acta Genet. Med. Gemellol. 33:321–332.Google Scholar
  19. Magnus, P., Berg, K., and Nance, W. E. (1983). Predicting zygosity in Norwegian twin pairs born in 1915–1960. Clin. Genet. 24:103–112.Google Scholar
  20. Neale, M. C. (1994). Mx: Statistical Modeling, 2nd ed., Department of Human Genetics Medical College of Virginia, Richmond.Google Scholar
  21. Neale, M. C., and Cardon, L. R. (1992). Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  22. Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., and Fulker, D. W. (1989). Fitting genetic models with LIS-REL: Hypothesis testing. Behav. Genet. 19:37–49.Google Scholar
  23. Nichols, P. C., and Bilbro, W. C. (1966). The diagnosis of twin zygosity. Acta Genet. Stat. Med. 16:265–275.Google Scholar
  24. Partinen, M. (1982). Sleeping habits and sleep disorders of Finnish men before, during and after military service. Ann. Med. Milit. Fenn. 57(Suppl. 1):1–96.Google Scholar
  25. Partinen, M. (1994). Epidemiology of sleep disorders. In Kryger, M. H., Roth, T., and Dement, W. C. (eds.), Principles and Practice in Sleep Medicine, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 437–452.Google Scholar
  26. Rechtschaffen, A., Goodenough, D. R., and Shapiro, A. (1962). Patterns of sleeptalking. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 7:418–426.Google Scholar
  27. Reimão, R. N. A. A., and Lefébre, A. B. (1980). Prevalence of sleep-talking in childhood. Brain Dev. 2:353–357.Google Scholar
  28. Saarenpää-Heikkilä, O. A., Rintahaka, P. J., Laippala, P. J., and Koivikko, M. J. (1995). Sleep habits and disorders in Finnish schoolchildren. J. Sleep Res. 4:173–182.Google Scholar
  29. Sarna, S., Kaprio, J., Sistonen, P., and Koskenvuo, M. (1978). Diagnosis of twin zygosity by mailed questionnaire. Hum. Hered. 28:241–254.Google Scholar
  30. SAS (1985). SAS User's Guide: Basics and Statistics, Version 5. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.Google Scholar
  31. Smirne, S., Franceschi, M. Zamproni, P., Crippa, D., and Ferini-Strambi, L. (1983). Prevalence of sleep disorders in an unselected inpatient population. In Guilleminault, C., and Lugaresi, E. (eds.), Sleep/Wake Disorders: Natural History, Epidemiology, and Long-Term Evolution, Raven Press, New York, pp. 61–71.Google Scholar
  32. Williams, C. J., Christian, J. C., and Norton, J. A. (1992). TWINAN90—A FORTRAN program for conducting ANOVA-based and likelihood-based analyses of twin data. Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 38:167–176.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christer Hublin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jaakko Kaprio
    • 1
    • 3
  • Markku Partinen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Markku Koskenvuo
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.The Finnish Twin Cohort, Department of Public HealthUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Haaga Neurological Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland. Department of Clinical NeurosciencesHelsinki University Central HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of Mental Health and Alcohol ResearchNational Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Department of Clinical NeurosciencesHelsinki University Central HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  5. 5.Department of Public HealthUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations