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Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

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Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water hardness onClarias gariepinus egg hatchability and larval viability.The fertilized eggs were incubated at 28 °C and with waterhardnesses ranging from 10–700 mg/l CaCO3. Themean hatching rate fluctuated between 42.31% at hardness of 10mg/land 64.66% at 2000 mg/l. Abnormalities in the larvae were observedbeyond 200 mg/l and increased with increase in water hardness. Thehighest larval survival of 71.05% was recorded at 60 mg/l waterhardness. Based on statistics performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) andfurther compared with Duncan's multiple range test (p = 0.05), the resultsimplythat very soft water (0–10 mg/l) and very hard water (300mg/l and above) are not suitable for Clariasegg incubation and larval rearing. A water hardness of 30–60mg/l CaCO3 is recommended for optimal normal hatching,high viability and maximum larval development of Clariasgariepinus.

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Molokwu, C., Okpokwasili, G. Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus . Aquaculture International 10, 57–64 (2002).

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