Skip to main content
Log in

Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

  • Published:
Aquaculture International Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of water hardness onClarias gariepinus egg hatchability and larval viability.The fertilized eggs were incubated at 28 °C and with waterhardnesses ranging from 10–700 mg/l CaCO3. Themean hatching rate fluctuated between 42.31% at hardness of 10mg/land 64.66% at 2000 mg/l. Abnormalities in the larvae were observedbeyond 200 mg/l and increased with increase in water hardness. Thehighest larval survival of 71.05% was recorded at 60 mg/l waterhardness. Based on statistics performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) andfurther compared with Duncan's multiple range test (p = 0.05), the resultsimplythat very soft water (0–10 mg/l) and very hard water (300mg/l and above) are not suitable for Clariasegg incubation and larval rearing. A water hardness of 30–60mg/l CaCO3 is recommended for optimal normal hatching,high viability and maximum larval development of Clariasgariepinus.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aguigwo J.N. 1993. Inter and intra specific hybridization of Clarias albopunctatus and Heterobrachuslongifilis. J. Aquat. Sci. 8: 45–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguigwo J.N. 1995. Studies on the biology of larva of Clariasalbopunctatus (N. and L.), influence of light on the survival of larvae. J. Aquat. Sci. 10: 15–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguigwo J.N.1998a. Studies on comparative growth performance of Clarias anguillaris and its hybridheteroclarias. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. 5: 888–897.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguigwo J.N. 1998b. Development and growth of laboratory reared larvae of Clarias albopunctatus(N. & L.). J. Aquat. Sci. 13: 19–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aguigwo J.N. 1999. Studies on the biology of larvae of Clariasalbopunctatus (N. & L.): effect of different diets on the growth and survival of larvae. J. Aquat. Sci. 14: 29–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ajuzie C.C. and Appelbaum S. 1996. Best temperature for African catfish eggs and larvae. Fish Farmer Internationalfile 10: 14–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyd C.E. 1979. Water quality in warmwater fish ponds. Agri. Exp. Sta. AuburnUniv. Auburn, Alabama, 359 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Britz P.J. and Hecht T. 1989. Effects of salinity on growth and survival of Africansharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae. J. Appl. Icthyol. 5: 194–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown D.J.A. and Lynam S. 1981.The effect of sodium and calcium concentration on the hatching of eggs and the survival of the yolk sac fry of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) at low pH. J. Fish Biol. 19: 205–211.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chung L., Lee Y.K., Chang S.T., Liu C.C. and Chen F.C.1980. The biology and artificial propagation of farm fishes. IDRC Manuscript Rep. 15: 100–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delince G.A., Campbell D., Jansen J.A.L. and Kutty M.N. 1987. Seed production. African Regional Aquaculture Centre (ARAC), Port Harcourt, 114 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ekweozor I.K.E., Bobmanuel N.O. and Gabriel U.U. 2001. Sublethal effects ofammoniacal fertilizer effluents on three commercial fish species from the Niger Delta Area. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 5: 63–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzal A.C., Analar E.V. and Pavico J.M.F. 1987. The effects of water hardness on the hatching and viabilityof silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) eggs. Aquaculture 64: 111–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huisman E.A. 1986. TheAquacultural potential of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell, 1822). In: Huisman E.A. (ed.), Aquaculture Research in African Region. Proceedings of the African Seminar on Aquaculture, Kisumau, Kenya. Pudoc, Wageningen.

  • Kane A.S., Bennet R.O. and May E.B. 1990. Effect of hardness and salinity on survival of stripped bass larvae. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 10: 67–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nsofor C.I. and Aguigwo J.N. 1995. Studies on theBiology of Clarias albopunctatus (N.&.L); effect of food and stocking density on the growth and survival of fingerlings. J. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2: 258–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Obasohan E.E. and Oronsaye J.A.O. 2000. Heavy metals in water, sediments andsome important commercial fish species from Ikpeba River, Benin city, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 4: 63–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oladosu G.A., Busar A.N., Uka A., Oladosu O.O. and Ayiala O.A. 1999. Influence of salinity on the developmentalstages of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 2: 29–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Onuoha G.C. and Nwadukwe F.O. 1990. Influence of liquid petroleum refinery effluent on the hatching success of Clarias gariepinus (African Mud Fish) Eggs. Environment and Ecology 8: 1201–1206.

    Google Scholar 

  • Piper R.G., McElwain J.B., Orme L.E., McCraren J.P., FowlerL.G. and Leonard J.R. 1982. Fish hatchery management. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA, 517 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sprague J.B. 1985. Factors that modify toxicity. In: Rand G.M. and Petrocelli S.R. (eds), Fundamentals ofAquatic Toxicology. Harper and Row, New York, pp. 124–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson L., Hill M., Welna J.P. and BirkenbeuellG.K. 1992. Statistics. Systat, Inc., Evanston, IL, USA, 750 pp.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Molokwu, C., Okpokwasili, G. Effect of water hardness on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus . Aquaculture International 10, 57–64 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021395122919

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021395122919

Navigation