Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 101–120 | Cite as

Evaluation of the Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) Seventh Grade Violence Prevention Curriculum

  • Albert D. Farrell
  • Aleta L. Meyer
  • Terri N. Sullivan
  • Eva M. Kung


We evaluated the impact of RIPP-7, a seventh grade violence prevention curriculum designed to strengthen and extend the effects of the sixth grade RIPP-6 curriculum. Classes of seventh graders at two urban middle schools serving predominantly African-American youth where RIPP-6 had been implemented the preceding school year were randomized to intervention (N = 239) and control groups (N = 237). Compared to students in the control group, students who participated in RIPP-7 had fewer disciplinary code violations for violent offenses during the following school year. A limited number of main effects were found on self-report outcome measures and measures of attitudes. Although significant main effects were not found on self-report measures of physical aggression, drug use, or anxiety, analyses of interactions with pretest scores indicated that intervention effects were significantly moderated by pretest scores for several outcome measures. Students most likely to benefit from the intervention were those who reported higher pretest rates of problem behaviors including violent behavior, nonphysical aggression, and delinquent behavior.

violence prevention early adolescence urban youth friendship anxiety 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aitkin, M., Anderson, D., Francis, B., & Hinde, J. (1989). Statistical modeling in GLIM. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Azmitia, M. & Montgomery, R. (1993). Friendship, transactive dialogues, and the development of scientific reasoning. Social Development, 2, 202-221.Google Scholar
  3. Crockett, L., & Petersen, A. (1993). Adolescent development: Health risks and opportunities for health promotion. In S. Millstein, A. Petersen, & E. Nightengale (Eds.), Promoting the health of adolescents (pp. 13-37). New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  4. Crum, T. (1987). The magic of conflict. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  5. Dishion, T., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755-764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Elliott, D. S. & Tolan, P. H. (1999). Youth violence prevention, intervention, and social policy: An overview. In D. J. Flannery, & C. R. Huff (Eds.), Youth violence prevention, intervention, and social policy (pp. 3-46). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  7. Farrell, A. D., Danish, S. J., & Howard, C. W. (1991). Evaluation of data screening methods in surveys of adolescents' drug use. Psychological Assessment, 3, 295-298.Google Scholar
  8. Farrell, A. D., Kung, E. M., White, K. S., & Valois, R. (2000). The structure of self-reported aggression, drug use, and delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 282-292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Farrell, A. D., & Meyer, A. L. (1997). The effectiveness of a school-based curriculum for reducing violence among sixth grade students. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 979-984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., & Dahlberg, L. (1996). Richmond Youth Against Violence: A school-based program for urban adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12 (suppl.) 13-21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., Kung, E. M., & Sullivan, T. N. (2001). Development and evaluation of school-based violence prevention programs. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 207-220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Farrell, A. D., Meyer, A. L., & White, K. S. (2001). Evaluation of Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP): A school-based prevention program for reducing violence among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 451-463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Farrell, A. D., Valois, R., Meyer, A. L., & Tidwell, R. (in press). Impact of the RIPP violence prevention program on rural middle school students: A between-school study. Journal of Primary Prevention.Google Scholar
  14. Farrell, A. D., Valois, R., & Meyer, A. L. (2002). Evaluation of the RIPP-6 Violence Prevention Program at a Rural Middle School. Journal of Health Education, 33, 167-172.Google Scholar
  15. Kids Count in Virginia (1999). Kids count in Virginia: 1999 data book. Richmond, VA: Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth.Google Scholar
  16. Lemerise, E., & Arsenio, W. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processes and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71, 107-118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Liang, K. Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13-22.Google Scholar
  18. Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Mercy, J. A., & Potter, L. B. (1996). Combining analysis and action to solve the problem of youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12 (suppl.) 1-2.Google Scholar
  20. Meyer, A. L., & Farrell, A. D. (1998). Social skills training to promote resilience and reduce violence in African American Middle School Students. Education and Treatment of Children, 21, 461-488.Google Scholar
  21. Meyer, A., Farrell, A., Northup, W., Kung, E., & Plybon, L. (2000). Promoting nonviolence in early adolescence: Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  22. Meyer, A., Northup, W., & Plybon, L. (1998). Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP): A violence prevention booster for seventh graders. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  23. Newman, D., Horne, A., & Bartolomucci, C. (in press). Bullies, victims and bystanders: An examination of the effectiveness of a teacher training program. The School Counselor.Google Scholar
  24. Norton, E. C., Bieler, G. S., Ennett, S. T., & Zarkin, G. A. (1996). Analysis of prevention program effectiveness with clustered data using generalized estimating equations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 919-926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Orpinas, P., Kelder, S., Frankowski, R., Murray, N., Zhang, Q., & McAlister, A. (2000). Outcome evaluation of a multi-component violence prevention program for middle schools: The Students for Peace project. Health Education Research, 15, 45-58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of children's manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 271-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Samples, F., & Aber, L. (1998). Evaluations of school-based violence prevention programs. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & K. R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 217-252). New York: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Stoolmiller, M., Eddy, J. M., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Detecting and describing preventive intervention effects in a universal school-based randomized trial targeting delinquent and violent behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 296-306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2001). Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  30. White, K. S., & Farrell, A. D. (2001). Structure of anxiety symptoms in urban children: Competing factor models of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 333-337.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albert D. Farrell
    • 1
  • Aleta L. Meyer
    • 2
  • Terri N. Sullivan
    • 2
  • Eva M. Kung
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond
  3. 3.United WayLynchburg

Personalised recommendations