Recent advances in understanding of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations andnumerical models, are reviewed. Particular attention is directedto the outcome of a COST-715 Expert Meeting held in April 2000,as well as experiments initiated by that action. In addition, recentcomplete parameterisations of urban effects in meso-scalemodels are reviewed. Given that neither the surface energybalance, nor its components, normally are directly measuredat meteorological stations, nor are there guidelines for theset-up of representative meteorological stations in urbanareas, this paper also provides recommendations to closethese gaps.
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Piringer, M., Grimmond, C.S.B., Joffre, S.M. et al. Investigating the Surface Energy Balance in Urban Areas – Recent Advances and Future Needs. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 1–16 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021302824331
- meso-scale models
- surface energybalance
- surface flux modelling
- urban boundary layer