Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Investigating the Surface Energy Balance in Urban Areas – Recent Advances and Future Needs

  • 273 Accesses

  • 28 Citations

Abstract

Recent advances in understanding of the surface energy balance of urban areas, based on both experimental investigations andnumerical models, are reviewed. Particular attention is directedto the outcome of a COST-715 Expert Meeting held in April 2000,as well as experiments initiated by that action. In addition, recentcomplete parameterisations of urban effects in meso-scalemodels are reviewed. Given that neither the surface energybalance, nor its components, normally are directly measuredat meteorological stations, nor are there guidelines for theset-up of representative meteorological stations in urbanareas, this paper also provides recommendations to closethese gaps.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Arnfield, A. J. and Grimmond, C. S.: 1998, ‘An urban canyon energy budget model and its application to urban storage heat flux modelling’, Ener. Build. 27, 61–68.

  2. Baklanov, A., Rasmussen, A., Fay, B., Berge, E. and Finardi, S.: 2001, ‘Potential and shortcomings of NWP models in providing meteorological data for UAP forecasting’, Ext. abstract to the Third Urban Air Quality Conference, Loutraki, Greece. CD-ROM, paper PL.4.1. (Int. J. Water, Air and Soil Poll., accepted).

  3. COST-710: 1998, ‘Harmonisation of Pre-Processing of Meteorological Data for Atmospheric Dispersion Models, Final Report’, European Commission, Report EUR 18195 EN.

  4. COST-715: 2001, ‘Surface Energy Balance in Urban Areas’, Extended Abstracts of an Expert Meeting. WG-2 COST Action 715, Antwerp, Belgium, 12 April 2000. European Commission. Report EUR 19447.

  5. Dupont, S., Guilloteau, E. and Mestayer, P. G.: 2000, ‘Energy Balance and Surface Temperatures of Urban Quarters’, Proc. 3rd AMS Symposium on Urban Environment, Davis, California, 14–18 August 2000, pp. 149–150.

  6. Dupont, E., Menut, L., Carissimo, B., Pelon, J. and Flamant, P.: 1999, ‘Comparison between the atmospheric boundary layer in Paris and its rural suburbs during the ECLAP experiment’, Atmos. Env. 33, 979–994.

  7. Ellis, N. L. and Middleton, D. R.: 2000, ‘Field Measurements and Modelling of Urban Meteorology in Birmingham, UK’, Proc. 3rd AMS Symposium on Urban Environment, Davis, CA, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 108–109.

  8. Feigenwinter, C., Vogt, R. and Parlow, E.: 1999, ‘Vertical structure of selected turbulence characteristics above an urban canopy’, Theoret. Appl. Climatol. 62, 51–63.

  9. Fisher, B. E. A., Kukkonen, J., Schatzmann, M.: 2002, ‘Meteorology applied to urban air pollution problems COST 715’, Sixth Int. Conf. On Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, October 11–14, 1999, Rouen, France, 10 p. Int. J. Environment and Pollution 16, 560–569.

  10. Grimmond, C. S. B. and Oke, T.R.: 1995, ‘Comparison of heat fluxes from summertime observations in the suburbs of four North American cities’, J. Appl. Meteor. 34, 873–889.

  11. Grimmond, C. S. B. and Oke, T. R.: 1999, ‘Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model’, J. Appl. Meteor. 38, 922–940.

  12. Grimmond, C. S. B. and Oke, T. R.: 2000, ‘A Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Pre-Processing Scheme (LUMPS)’, ‘Preparation of Meteorological Input Data for Urban Site Studies' (ed.: M. Schatzmann, J. Brechler, B. Fisher), Prague, Czech Republic, June 15, 2000, 73–83.

  13. Grimmond, C. S. B. and Oke, T. R.: 2002, ‘Turbulent heat fluxes in urban areas: Observations and local-scale urban meteorological parameterization scheme (LUMPS)’, J. Appl. Meteor. 41, 792–810.

  14. Grimmond, C. S. B. and Souch, C.: 1994, ‘Surface description for urban climate studies: a GIS based methodology’, Geocarto Int. 9, 47–59.

  15. Grimmond, C. S. B., Cleugh, H. A. and Oke, T. R.: 1991, ‘An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes’, Atmos. Env. 25B, 311–326.

  16. Grimmond, C. S. B., Souch, C. and Hubble, M.: 1996, ‘The influence of tree cover on summertime energy balance fluxes, San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles’, Clim. Res. 6, 45–57.

  17. Holmer, B. and Eliasson, I.: 1999, ‘Urban-rural vapour pressure differences and their role in the development of urban heat islands’, Int. J. Climatol. 19: 989–1009.

  18. Holtslag, A. A. M. and Van Ulden, A. P.: 1983, ‘A simple scheme for daytime estimates of the surface fluxes from routine weather data’, J. Appl. Meteor. 22, 517–529.

  19. Kallos, G.: 1998, ‘Regional/Mesoscale Models’, Urban Air Pollution – European Aspects (Part. IV.,Chap. 11.), Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 177–196.

  20. Klysik, K.: 1996, ‘Spatial and seasonal distribution of anthropogenic heat emissions in Lodz, Poland’, Atmos. Env. 30, 3397–3404.

  21. Lemonsu, A. and Masson, V.: 2001, ‘Simulation of a summer urban breeze over Paris’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 104, 463–490.

  22. Martilli, A.: 2001, ‘Development of an Urban Turbulence Parameterisation for Mesoscale Atmospheric Models’, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Dissertation 2445, 176 pp.

  23. Martilli, A., Clappier, A. and Rotach, M. W.: 2002, ‘An urban surface exchange parameterisation for mesoscale models’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 104, 261–304.

  24. Masson, V.: 2000, ‘A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 94, 357–397.

  25. Mestayer, P. G.: 1998, ‘Urban Scale Models’, Urban Air Pollution – European Aspects (Part. IV.,Chap. 11.), Kluwer Acad. Public., Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 197–222.

  26. Noilhan, J. and Planton, S.: 1989, ‘A simple parameterization of the land surface processes for meteorological models’, Mon. Wea. Rev. 117, 536–549.

  27. Oke, T. R.: 1997, ‘Urban environments’, in W. G. Bailey, T. R. Oke and W. R. Rouse (eds), The Surface Climates of Canada, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montréal, 303–327.

  28. Oke, T. R., Grimmond, C. S. B. and Spronken-Smith, R.: 1998, ‘On the confounding role of rural wetness in assessing urban effects on climate’, Preprints of the AMS Second Urban Environment Symposium, 59–62.

  29. Oke, T. R., Spronken-Smith, R., Jauregui, E. and Grimmond, C. S. B.: 1999, ‘Recent energy balance observations in Mexico City’, Atmos. Env. 33, 3919–3930.

  30. Piringer, M., Baklanov, A., De Ridder, K., Ferreira, J., Joffre, S., Karppinen, A., Mestayer, P., Middleton, D., Tombrou, M., Vogt, R.: 2001, ‘The Surface Energy Budget and the Mixing Height in Urban Areas: Status Report of Working Group 2 of COST-Action 715’, Ext. abstract to the Third Urban Air Quality Conference, Loutraki, Greece. CD-ROM, paper Pl 1.3.

  31. Rotach, M. W.: 2001, ‘Simulation of urban-scale dispersion using a Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 99, 379–410.

  32. Rotach, M. W., Mitev, V., Vogt, R., Clappier, A., Richner, H., Ruffieux, D.: 2001, ‘BUBBLE – Current Status of the Experiment and Planned Investigation/Evaluation of the Urban Mixing Height’, Proc. COST-Action 715 Workshop on the Mixing Height and Inversions in Urban Areas, Toulouse, 3–4 Oct. 2001 (submitted).

  33. Roth, M. and Oke, T. R.: 1995, ‘Relative efficiencies of turbulent transfer of heat, mass and momentum over a patchy urban surface’, J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 1864–1874

  34. Schmid, H. P.: 1994, ‘Source areas for scalars and scalar fluxes’, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 67,293–318.

  35. Schmid, H. P.: 1997, ‘Experimental design for flux measurements: matching scales of observations and fluxes’, Agr. Forest Meteorol. 87, 179–200.

  36. Spronken-Smith, R. A.: 1998, ‘Comparison of Summer and Wintertime Energy Fluxes over a Sub-urban Neighborhood’, Preprints of the Second Urban Environment Symposium, Christchurch, New Zealand, American Meteorological Society, pp. 243–246.

  37. Taha, H. and Bornstein, R.: 2000, ‘Urbanization of meteorological models and implications on simulated heat islands and air quality’, in R. J. de Dear, J. D. Kalma, T. R. Oke and A. Auliciems (eds), Biometeorology and Urban Climatology at the Turn of the Millenium. Selected Papers from the Conference ICB-ICUC '99, Sydney, Australia, 8–12 Nov. 1999, pp. 431–435.

  38. Voogt, J. A. and Grimmond, C. S. B.: 2000, ‘Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban area’, J. Appl. Meteor. 39, 1679–1699.

  39. Zhang, X., Aono, Y., Monji, N.: 1998, ‘Spatial variability of urban surface heat fluxes estimated from LANDSAT TM data under summer and winter conditions’, J. Agric. Meteor. 54, 1–11.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to M. Piringer.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Piringer, M., Grimmond, C.S.B., Joffre, S.M. et al. Investigating the Surface Energy Balance in Urban Areas – Recent Advances and Future Needs. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus 2, 1–16 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021302824331

Download citation

  • COST-715
  • meso-scale models
  • surface energybalance
  • surface flux modelling
  • urban boundary layer