Skip to main content


Log in

Minority Education in Inner Mongolia and Tibet

  • Published:
International Review of Education Aims and scope Submit manuscript


During a visit in October 1997 the author studied six higher education institutions in Inner Mongolia and three in Tibet, as well as several elementary and secondary schools in both provinces. A brief history of these provinces is followed by a survey of primary, secondary and tertiary education in each one, highlighting both the similarities and contrasts between the more urbane and economically vital Inner Mongolia and the more rural and economically disadvantaged Tibet. Aspects examined by the author include admission policy, fees, curricula, language of instruction, preservation of cultural identity and transition to work.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Anon. 1984. China's Minority Nationalities. Beijing: China Reconstructs.

  • Anon. 1989. China's Nationalities. Beijing: China Nationality Photograph and Art Press.

  • Anon. 1993. Reform to Free Graduates from Job Assignment. China Daily, 29 September.

  • Anon. 1997. Urban Dwellers Up. China Daily, 9 October.

  • Berry, S. 1999. A Stranger in Tibet. The Adventures of a Zen Monk. London: Flamingo/Harper Collins.

    Google Scholar 

  • CEAIE (Chinese Education Association for International Exchanges). 1989. Chinese Universities and Colleges. A Guide to Institutions of Higher Education in China. Beijing: Higher Education Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • China Statistical Yearbook 1997 (No 16). Beijing: China Statistical Publishing House.

  • David-Neel, A. 1927. My Journey to Lhasa. New York: Harper and Brothers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dorje, G. 1996. Tibet Handbook with Bhutan. Bath, England: Trade & Travel Publications Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ekvall, R. 1968. Fields on the Hoof. Nexus of Tibetan Nomadic Pastoralism. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, M. 1989. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, M. and Beall, C. 1990. Nomads of Western Tibet. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, M. 1997. The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet and the Dalai Lama. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrer, H. 1996. Epilogue to Seven Years in Tibet (1953). New York: Penguin Putnam Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, B. 1996. Foreword. In: H. Wardle et al., ed., Tibetan Voices. San Francisco, CA: Pomegranate Artbooks.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haw, S. 1997. A Traveller's History of China, 2d ed. New York: Interlock Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hicks, R. 1988. Hidden Tibet. The Land and its People. Longmead, Shaftesbury, Dorset, England: Element Books Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kormondy E. 1982. The People's Republic of China: Revitalizing an Educational System. Change 13: 32-37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kormondy E. 1983. Preparation of Secondary School Biology Teachers in the People's Republic of China (with Paul Hurd). American Biology Teacher 45: 83-80, 108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kormondy E. 1995. Observations on Minority Education, Cultural Preservation and Economic Development in China. Compare 25: 161-178.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perkins, J. 1991. Tibet in Exile. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • SEdC (State Education Commission). 1996. Project 211: A Brief Introduction. Beijing: State Education Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shakya, T. 1999. The Dragon in the Land of Snows. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Strong, A. 1976. When Serfs Stood Up in Tibet. San Francisco: Red Sun Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, C. 1995. Tibet-a Travel Survival Kit. Hawthorn, Australia: Lonely Planet Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, W. and Zeng, Q. 1993. In Search of China's Minorities. Beijing: New World Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kormondy, E.J. Minority Education in Inner Mongolia and Tibet. International Review of Education 48, 377–401 (2002).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: