Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Plant nutrition research: Priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways

  • 1917 Accesses

  • 272 Citations


The world population is expanding rapidly and will likely be 10 billion by the year 2050. Limited availability of additional arable land and water resources, and the declining trend in crop yields globally make food security a major challenge in the 21st century. According to the projections, food production on presently used land must be doubled in the next two decades to meet food demand of the growing world population. To achieve the required massive increase in food production, large enhancements in application of fertilizers and improvements of soil fertility are indispensable approaches. Presently, in many developing countries, poor soil fertility, low levels of available mineral nutrients in soil, improper nutrient management, along with the lack of plant genotypes having high tolerance to nutrient deficiencies or toxicities are major constraints contributing to food insecurity, malnutrition (i.e., micronutrient deficiencies) and ecosystem degradation. Plant nutrition research provides invaluable information highly useful in elimination of these constraints, and thus, sustaining food security and well-being of humans without harming the environment. The fact that at least 60% of cultivated soils have growth-limiting problems with mineral-nutrient deficiencies and toxicities, and about 50% of the world population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies make plant nutrition research a major promising area in meeting the global demand for sufficient food production with enhanced nutritional value in this millennium. Integration of plant nutrition research with plant genetics and molecular biology is indispensable in developing plant genotypes with high genetic ability to adapt to nutrient deficient and toxic soil conditions and to allocate more micronutrients into edible plant products such as cereal grains.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Alexandratos N 1995 World Agriculture Towards 2010: An FAO Study. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, West Sussex.

  2. Alvey S, Bagayoko M, Neumann G, Buerkert A 2001 Cereal/legume rotations affect chemical properties and biological activities in two West African soils. Plant Soil 231, 45–54.

  3. Aniol A M 1991 Genetics of acid tolerant plant. In Plant-Soil Interactions at Low pH. Eds. R J Wright, V C Baligar and R P Murrmann. pp. 1007–1017. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.

  4. Banziger M and Long J 2000. The potential for increasing the iron and zinc density of maize through plant-breeding. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 397–400.

  5. Bates T R and Lynch J P 2000 The efficiency of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) root hairs in phosphorus acquisition. Am. J. Bot. 87, 964–970.

  6. Batjes N H 1997 A world data set of derived soil properties by FAO-UNESCO soil unit for global modelling. Soil Use Manage. 13, 9–16.

  7. Becker M and Johnson D E 1999 The role of legume fallows in intensified upland rice-based systems ofWest Africa. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 53, 71–81.

  8. Beebe S, Gonzalez A V and Rengifo J 2000 Research on trace minerals in the common bean. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 387–391.

  9. Bekunda M A, Bationo A and Ssali H 1997 Soil fertility management in Africa: a review of selected research trials. In Replenishing Soil in Africa. pp. 63-79. SSSA Special Books, No. 51, Madison, WI.

  10. Boddey R M, De Moraes S A, Alves B J R and Urquiaga U 1997 The contribution of biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agricultural systems in the tropics. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 787–799.

  11. Borlaug N E and Dowswell C R 1993 Fertilizer: To nourish infertile soil that feeds a fertile population that crowds a fragile world. Fertil. News 387, 11–20.

  12. Bouis H, Graham R D and Welch R M 2000 The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) Micronutrients Project: justification and objectives. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 374–381.

  13. Buerkert A, Bationo A and Dosso K 2000 Mechanism of residue mulch-induced cereal growth increases in West Africa. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64, 346–358.

  14. Bumb B L and Baanante C A 1996 The role of fertilizer in sustaining food security and protecting the environment to 2020, 2020 Vision Discussion Paper 17. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

  15. Byrnes B H and Bumb B L 1998 Population growth, food production and nutrient requirements. In Journal of Crop Production. Ed. Z. Rengel. pp. 1–27. The Haworth Press, New York.

  16. Cakmak I, Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Torun B, Erenoglu B. and Braun H J 1996a Zinc deficiency as a critical nutritional problem in wheat production in Central Anatolia. Plant Soil 180, 165–172.

  17. Cakmak I, Sari N, Marschner H, Ekiz H, Kalayci M, Yilmaz A and Braun H J 1996b Phytosiderophore release in bread and durum wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. Plant Soil 180, 183–189.

  18. Cakmak I, Derici R, Torun B, Tolay I, Braun H J and Schlegel R 1997 Role of rye chromosomes in improvement of zinc efficiency in wheat and triticale. Plant Soil 196, 249–253.

  19. Cakmak I, Torun B, Erenoglu B, Oztürk L, Marschner H, Kalayci M, Ekiz H and Yilmaz A 1998 Morphological and physiological differences in cereals in response to zinc deficiency. Euphytica 100, 349–357.

  20. Cakmak I, Kalayci M, Ekiz H, Braun H J and Yilmaz A 1999a Zinc deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: A NATO-Science for Stability Project. Field Crops Res. 60, 175–188.

  21. Cakmak I, Cakmak O, Eker S, Ozdemir A, Watanabe N and Braun H J 1999b Expression of high zinc efficiency of Aegilops tauschii and Triticum monococcum in synthetic hexaploid wheats. Plant Soil 215, 203–209.

  22. Cakmak I, Ozkan H, Braun H J, Welch R M and Romheld V 2000 Zinc and iron concentrations in seeds of wild, primitive and modern wheats. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 401–403.

  23. Carver B F and Ownby J D 1995 Acid soil tolerance in wheat. Adv. Agron. 54, 117–173.

  24. Chen Y and Barak P 1982 Iron nutrition of plants in calcareous soils. Adv. Agron. 35, 217–240.

  25. Crawford N M and Glass A D M 1998 Molecular and physiological aspects of nitrate uptake in plants. Trends Plant Sci. 10, 389–395.

  26. Dakora F D and Keya S O 1997 Contribution of legume nitrogen fixation to sustainable agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 809–817.

  27. Dalal R C 1977 Soil organic phosphorus. Adv. Agron. 29, 83–117.

  28. Daram P, Brunner S, Amrhein N and Bucher M 1998 Functional analysis and cell-specific expression of a phosphate transporter from tomato. Planta 206, 225–233.

  29. De la Fuente M J, Ramirez-Rodriguez V, Cabrera-Ponce J L and Herrera-Estrella L 1997 Aluminum tolerance in transgenic plants by alteration of citrate synthesis. Science 276, 1566–1568.

  30. De la Fuente J M and Herrera-Estrella L 1999 Advances in the understanding of aluminium toxicity and the development of aluminium-tolerant transgenic plants Adv. Agron. 66, 103–120.

  31. De Pauw E F 1994 The management of acid soils in Africa. Outlook Agric. 23, 11–16.

  32. Delhaize E, Hebb D M and Ryan P R 2001 Expression of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa citrate synthase gene in tobacco is not associated with either enhanced citrate accumulation or efflux. Plant Physiol. 125, 2059–2067.

  33. Dinkelaker B, Römheld V and Marschner H 1989 Citric acid excretion and precipitation of calcium citrate in the rhizosphere of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). Plant Cell Environ. 12, 285–292.

  34. Dodd J C 2000 The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroand natural ecosystems. Outlook Agricult. 29, 55–62.

  35. Dyson T 1999 World food trends and prospects to 2025. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5929–5936.

  36. Eghball B and Gilley J E 1999 Phosphorus and nitrogen in runoff following beef cattle manure or compost application. J. Environ. qual. 28, 1201–1210.

  37. Eghball B, Binford G D and Baltensperger D D 1996 Phosphorus movement and adsorption in a soil receiving long-term manure and fertilizer application. J. Environ. Qual. 25, 1339–1343.

  38. Eide D, Broderius M, Fett J, and Guerinot M 1996 A novel ironregulated metal transporter from plants identified by functional expression in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 5624–5628.

  39. Ellsworth J W, Jolley V D, Nualand D S and Blaylock A D 1998 Use of hydrogen release or a combination of hydrogen release and iron reduction for selecting iron-efficient dry bean and soybean cultivars. J. Plant Nutr. 12, 2639–2651.

  40. Ekiz H, Bagci S A, Kiral A S, Eker S, Gültekin I, Alkan A and Cakmak I 1998 Effects of zinc fertilization and irrigation on grain yield and zinc concentration of various cereals grown in zinc-deficient calcareous soils. J. Plant Nutr. 21, 2245–2256.

  41. Erenoglu B, Cakmak I, Marschner H, Römheld V, Eker S, Daghan H, Kalayci M and Ekiz H 1996 Phytosiderophore release does not correlate well with zinc efficiency in different bread wheat genotypes. J. Plant Nutr. 19, 1569–1580.

  42. Erickson H, Keller M and Davidson E A 2001 Nitrogen oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling during postagricultural succession and forest fertilization in the humid tropics. Ecosystems 4, 67–84.

  43. Evenson R E 1999 Global and local implications of biotechnology and climate change for future food supplies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5921–5928.

  44. Eyupoglu F, Kurucu N, Sanisa U 1993 Status of Plant Available Micronutrients in Turkish Soils. In Annual Report. Report No. R-118. Soil and Fertilizer Research Institute, Ankara, pp. 25–32.

  45. FAO 1996 Food, Agriculture and Food Security: Developments Since the World Food Conference and Prospects, World Food Summit Technical Background Document No. 1 Rome.

  46. FAO 1999 The State of Food Insecurity in the World. FAO, Rome.

  47. FAO 2000 Fertilizer requirements in 2015 and 2030. FAO, Rome.

  48. Fairbanks D J 2000 Development of genetic resistance to irondeficiency chlorosis in soybean. J. Plant Nutr. 23, 1903–1913.

  49. Gahoonia T S and Nielsen E N 1998 Direct evidence on participation of root hairs in phosphorus (32P) uptake from soil. Plant Soil 198, 147–152.

  50. Gahoonia T S, Asmar F, Giese H, Gissel-Nielsen and Nielsen N E 2000 Root-released organic acids and phosphorus uptake of two barley cultivars in laboratory and field experiments. Eur. J. Agron. 12, 281–289.

  51. Gaume A, Machler F, De Leon C, Narro L and Frossard E 2001 Low-P tolerance by maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes: significance of root growth, and organic acids and acid phosphatase root exudation. Plant Soil 228, 253–264.

  52. Georgatsou E and Alexandraki D 1994 Two distinctly regulated genes are required for ferric reduction, the first step of iron uptake in Sacchoromyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell Biol. 14, 3065–3073.

  53. George E and Marschner H 1994 Nutrient and water uptake by roots of forest trees. Z. Pflanzenernähr. Bodenkd. 159, 11–21.

  54. Goto F, Yoshihara T, Shigemoto N, Toki S, Takaiwa F 1999 Iron fortification of rice seed by the soybean ferritin gene. Nat. Biotechnol. 17, 282–286.

  55. Graham R D and Welch R M 1996 Breeding for staple-food crops with high micronutrient density. Agricultural Strategies for Micronutrients. Working Paper No. 3. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

  56. Graham R D and Rengel Z 1993 Genotypic variation in zinc uptake and utilization by plants. In Zinc in Soils and Plants, Ed. A D Robson. pp. 107–118. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

  57. Graham R D, Ascher J S and Hynes S C 1992 Selecting zincefficient cereal genotypes for soils of low zinc status. Plant Soil 146, 241–250.

  58. Graham R D, Senadhira D, Beebe S E, Iglesias C and Ortiz-Monasterio I 1999 Breeding for micronutrients density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crops Res. 60, 57–80.

  59. Graham R D, Welch R M and Bouis H E 2001 Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: Principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Adv. Agron. 70, 77–142.

  60. Gregory G B, Senadhira D, Htut H and Graham R D 2000 Breeding for trace mineral density in rice. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 382–386.

  61. Grotz N, Fox T, Connolly E, Park W, Guerinot M L and Eide D 1998 Identification of a family of zinc transporter genes from Arabidopsis that respond to zinc deficiency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 12, 7220–7224.

  62. Gruhn P, Goletti F and Yudelman M 2000 Integrated nutrient management, soil fertility, and sustainable agriculture: Current issues and future challenges. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper 32. International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, DC.

  63. Gupta U C 1991 Iron status of crops in Prince Edward Island and effect of soil pH on plant iron concentration. Can. J. Soil Sci. 71, 197–202.

  64. Harlan J R 1981 The early history of wheat: earliest traces to the sack of Rome. In Wheat Science-Today and Tomorrow. Eds. L T Evans and J Peacock. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  65. Hayes J E, Richardson A E and Simpson R J 1999 Phytase and acid phosphatase activities in extracts from roots of temperate pasture grass and legume seedlings Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 26, 801–809.

  66. Haynes R J and Mokolobate M S 2001 Amelioration of Al toxicity and P deficiency in acid soils by additions of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms involved. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 59, 47–63.

  67. Hell R and Hillebrand H 2001 Plant concepts for mineral acquisition and allocation. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 12, 161–168.

  68. Henao J and Baanante C 1999 Nutrient depletion in the agricultural soils of Africa. 2020 Vision Brief 62. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

  69. Herrera-Estrella, L 1999 Transgenic plants for tropical regions: Some considerations about their development and their transfer to the small farmer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 5978–5981.

  70. Higuchi K, Suzuki K, Nakanishi Y, Yamaguchi H, Nishizawa N K and Mori S 1999 Cloning of nicotianamine synthase genes, novel genes involved in the biosynthesis of phytosiderophores. Plant Physiol. 119, 471–479.

  71. Higuchi K, Watanabe S., Takahashi M, Kawasaki S, Nakanishi H, Nishizawa N K and Mori S 2001 Nicotianamine synthase gene expression differs in barley and rice under Fe-deficient conditions. Plant J. 25, 159–167.

  72. Hirsch R E and Susman M R 1999 Improving nutrient capture from soil by the genetic manipulation of crop. Trends Biotechnol. 17, 356–361.

  73. Hoffland E, Findenegg G R and Nelemans J A 1989 Solubilisation of rock phosphate by rape. 2. Local root exudation of organic acids as a response to P starvation. Plant Soil 113, 161–165.

  74. Holford I C R 1997 Soil phosphorus, its measurements and its uptake by plants. Aust. J. Soil. Res. 35, 227–239.

  75. Hopkins B G, Whitney D A, Lamond R E and Jolley V D 1997 Phytosiderophore release by sorghum, wheat and corn under zinc deficiency. J. Plant Nutr. 21, 2623–2637.

  76. Horst W J 1995 The role of apoplast in aluminium toxicity and resistance in higher plants: a review. Z. Pflanzenernähr. Bodenkd. 158, 419–428.

  77. Horst W J and Hardter R 1994 Rotation of maize with cowpea improves yield and nutrient use of maize compared to maize monocropping in an alfisol in the northern Guinea Savanna of Ghana. Plant Soil 160, 171–183.

  78. Hossain M and Singh V P 2000 Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: implications for sustaining food security and the environment. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 57, 155–169.

  79. Howarth R W 1998 An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from the terrestrial landscape to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 52, 213–223.

  80. Hue N V and Amien I 1989 Aluminium detoxification with green manures. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 20, 1499–1511.

  81. Hue N V, Ikawa H and Silva J A 1994 Increasing plant available phosphorus in an Ultisol with a yard-waste compost. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25, 3291–3303.

  82. Humphreys E, Chalk P M, Muirhead W A, Melhuish F M and White R J G 1987 Effects of time of application of urea application on combine-sown Calrose rice in south-east Australia. III. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery, efficiency of fertilization and soil nitrogen supply. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 38, 129–138.

  83. Hungria M and Vargas M A T 2000 Environmental factors affecting N2 fixation in grain legumes in the tropics, with an emphasis on Brazil. Field Crops Res. 65, 151–164.

  84. Isherwood K F 2000 The state of the fertilizer industry: past, present and future. Annual General Meeting. 68th IFA Annual Conference 22-25 May 2000, Oslo, Norway.

  85. Iyamuremye E and Dick R P 1996 Organic amendments and phosphorus sorption by soils. Adv. Agron. 56, 139–185.

  86. Jolley V D, Fairbanks D J, Stevens W B, Terry R E and Orf J H 1992 Using root iron-reduction capacity for genotype evaluation of iron efficiency in soybean. J. Plant Nutr. 15, 1679–1690.

  87. Jolley V D, Cook K A, Hansen N C and Stevens W B 1996 Plant physiological responses for genotypic evaluation of iron efficiency in Strategy I and Strategy II plants: A review. J. Plant Nutr. 19, 1241–1255.

  88. Kalayci M, Torun B, Eker S, Aydin M, Ozturk L and Cakmak I 1999 Grain yield, zinc efficiency and zinc concentration of wheat cultivars grown in a zinc-deficient calcareous soil in field and greenhouse. Field Crops Res. 63, 87–98.

  89. Kanazawa K, Higuchi K, Nishizawa N K, Fushiya S, Chino M, and Mori S 1994 Nicotianamine aminotransferase activities are correlated to the phytosiderophore secretions under Fe-deficient conditions in Gramineae. J. Exp. Bot. 45, 1903–1906.

  90. Kawai S, Takagi S and Sato Y 1988 Mugineic acid-family phytosiderophores in root-secretions of barley, corn and sorghum varieties. J. Plant Nutr. 11, 633–642.

  91. Kochian L V 1995 Cellular mechanisms of aluminium toxicity and resistance in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 46, 237–260.

  92. Koyama H, Kawamura A, Kihara T, Hara T, Takita E and Shibata D 2000 Overexpression of mitochondrial citrate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana improved growth on a phosphorus-limited soil. Plant Cell Physiol. 9, 1030–1037.

  93. Kroeze C and Seitzinger S P 1998 Nitrogen inputs to rivers, estuaries and continental shelves and related nitrous oxide emissions in 1990 and 2050: a global model. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 52, 145–212.

  94. Li X L, Marschner H and George E 1991 Acquisition of phosphorus and copper by VA-mycorrhizal hyphae and root-to-shoot transport in white clover. Plant Soil 136, 49–57.

  95. Lin S F, Grandt D, Cianzio S and Shoemaker R 2000 Molecular characterisation of iron deficiency chlorosis in soybean. J. Plant Nutr. 23, 1929–1939.

  96. Loneragen J P 1997 Plant nutrition in 20th and perspectives for the 21st century. Plant Soil 196, 163–174.

  97. Lopez-Bucio J, Nieto-Jacobo M F, Ramirez-Rodriguez V and Herrera-Estrella L 2000a Organic acid metabolism in plants: from adaptive physiology to transgenic varieties for cultivation in extreme soils. Plant Sci. 160, 1–13.

  98. Lopez-Bucio J, Martinez de la Vega O, Guevara-Garcia A and Herrera-Estrella L 2000b Enhanced phosphorus uptake in transgenic tobacco plants that overproduce citrate. Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 450–453.

  99. Ma J F, Zheng S J and Matsumoto H 1997 Specific secretion of citric acid induced by Al stress in Cassia tora L. Plant Cell Physiol. 38, 1019–1025.

  100. Ma J F, Ryan P R and Delhaize E 2001 Aluminium tolerance in plants and the complexing role of organic acids. Trends Plant Sci. 6, 273–278.

  101. Maene L M 2000 Efficient fertilizer use and its role in increasing food production and protecting the environment. 6th AFA International Annual Conference 31 January-3 February 2000, Cairo, Egypt.

  102. Marschner H 1991 Mechanisms of adaptation of plants to acid soils. Plant Soil 134, 1–20.

  103. Marschner H 1995 Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press. London.

  104. Marschner H 1998 Soil-root interface: biological and biochemical process. In Soil Chemistry and Ecosystem Health. pp. 191-231. SSSA Special Publication No 52. Madison, WI.

  105. Marschner H and Römheld V 1994 Strategies of plants for acquisition of iron. Plant Soil 165, 261–274.

  106. Marschner H, Römheld V and Kissel M 1986 Different strategies in higher plants in mobilization and uptake of iron. J. Plant Nutr. 9, 695–713.

  107. McTaggart I P, Clayton H, Parker J, Swan L and Smith K A 1997 Nitrous oxide emissions from grassland and spring barley, following N fertilizer application with and without nitrification inhibitors. Biol. Fertil. Soils 25, 261–268.

  108. McGonigle T P and Miller MH 1999 Winter survival of extraradical hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the field. Appl. Soil Ecol. 12, 41–50.

  109. Mitsukowa N, Okumura S, Shirano Y, Sato S, Kato T, Harashima S and Shibata D 1997 Overexpression of an Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity phosphate transporter gene in tobacco cultured cells enhances cell growth under phosphate-limited conditions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 7098–7102.

  110. Monasterio I and Graham, R D 2000 Breeding for trace mineral in wheat. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 392–396.

  111. Mori S 1999 Iron acquisition by plants. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2, 250–253.

  112. Mosier A R 1998 Soil processes and global change. Biol. Fertil. Soils 27, 221–229.

  113. Mosier A R, Bronson K F, Freney J R and Keerthisinghe D G 1994 Use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emission from urea fertilized soils. In CH4 and N2O: Global Emissions and Controls from Rice Fields and Other Agricultural and Industrial Sources. Eds. K Minami, A Mosier and R Sass. pp. 197–207. Yokendo Publishers, Tokyo.

  114. Mosier A R, Bleken M A, Chaiwanakupt P, Ellis E C, Freney J R, Howarth R B, Matson P A, Minami K, Naylor R, Weeks K N and Zhu Z L 2001 Policy implications of human-accelerated nitrogen cycling. Biogeochem. 52, 281–320.

  115. Noble A D, Zenneck I and Randall P J 1996 Leaf litter ash alkalinity and neutralisation of soil acidity. Plant Soil 179, 293–302.

  116. Nesbitt M and Samuel D 1995 Wheat domestication: archaeobotanical evidence. Science 279, 1433–1433.

  117. Oki H, Yamaguchi H, Nakanishi H and Mori S 1999 Introduction of the reconstructed yeast ferric reductase gene, refre1, into tobacco. Plant Soil 215, 211–220.

  118. Pellet D M, Grunes D L, Kochian L V 1995 Organic acid exudation as an aluminium-tolerance mechanism in maize (Zea mays L.). Planta 196, 788–795.

  119. Peterson C J, Johnson V A and Mattern P J 1986 Influence of cultivar and environment on mineral and protein concentrations of wheat flour, bran and grain. Cereal Chem. 63, 118–186.

  120. Pinstrup-Andersen P 1999 Selected aspects of the future global food situation. In 25th International Fertilizer Industry Association Enlarged Council Meeting, Rome, Italy.

  121. Pinstrup-Andersen P, Pandya-Lorch R and Rosegrant M W 1999 World food propects: Critical issues for the early twenty-first century. 2020 Vision Food Policy Report, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

  122. Quedraogo E, Mando A and Zombre N P 2001 Use of compost to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 84, 259–266.

  123. Raghothama K G 1999 Phosphate acquisition. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 50, 665–693.

  124. Raghothama K G 2000 Phosphate transport and signalling. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 182–187.

  125. Reddy D D, Rao A S, Reddy K S and Takkar P N 1999 Yield sustainability and phosphorus utilisation in soybean-wheat system on vertisols in response to integrated use of manure and fertilizer phosphorus. Field Crops Res. 62, 181–190.

  126. Rengel Z 1999 Physiological mechanisms underlying differential nutrient efficiency of crop genotypes. In Mineral Nutrition of Crops: Fundamental Mechanisms and Implications. Ed. Z. Rengel. pp. 227–265. The Haworth Press, New York.

  127. Rengel Z 2001 Genotypic differences in micronutrient use efficiency in crops. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32, 1163–1186.

  128. Rengel Z and Graham R D 1995 Importance of seed Zn content for wheat growth on Zn-deficient soil. I. Vegetative growth. Plant Soil 173, 259–266.

  129. Rengel Z, Römheld V, Marschner H. 1998. Uptake of zinc iron by wheat genotypes differing in tolerance to zinc deficiency. J. Plant Physiol. 152, 433–438.

  130. Reynolds C S and Davies P S 2001 Sources and bioavailability of phosphorus fractions in freshwaters: a British perspective. Biol. Rev. 76, 27–64.

  131. Richardson A E, Hadobas P A and Hayes J E 2001 Extracellular secretion of Aspergillus phytase from Arabidopsis roots enables plants to obtain phosphorus from phytate. Plant J. 25, 641–649.

  132. Robinson N J, Sadjuga and Groom Q J 1997 The froh gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana: putative iron-chelate reductases. Plant Soil 196, 245–248.

  133. Robinson N J, Procter C M, Connolly E L and Guerinot M L 1999 A ferric-chelate reductase for iron uptake from soils. Nature 397, 694–697.

  134. Rochester I J, Peoples M B, Hulugalle N R, Gault R R and Constable G A 2000 Using legumes to enhance nitrogen fertility and improve soil condition in cotton cropping systems. Field Crops Res. 70, 27–41.

  135. Romera F J, Alcantara and Guardia M D dela 1991 Characterisation of the tolerance to iron chlorosis in different peach rootstocks grown in nutrient solution. II. Iron-stress response mechanism. Plant Soil 130, 120–124.

  136. Romheld V and Marschner H 1986 Evidence for a specific uptake system for iron phytosiderophores in roots of grasses. Plant Physiol. 80, 175–180.

  137. Römheld V and Marschner H 1990 Genotypical differences among graminaceous species in release of phytosiderophores and uptake of iron phytosiderophores. Plant Soil 123, 147–153.

  138. Rosegrant M W, Leach N and Gerpacio R V 1999 Alternative future for world cereal and meat consumption. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 58, 219–234.

  139. Rosegrant M W, Paisner M S, Meijer S and Witcover J 2001 2020 Global Food Outlook; Trends, Alternatives, and Choices. A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Initiative. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.

  140. Ryan P R, Delhaize E and Randall P J 1995 Characterisation of Alstimulated efflux of malate from the apices of Al-tolerant wheat roots. Planta 196, 103–110.

  141. Samuelsen A I, Martin R C, Mok D W S and Mok M C 1998 Expression of the yeast FRE genes in transgenic tobacco. Plant Physiol. 118, 51–58.

  142. Scherr S J 1999 Soil degradation, a threat to developing-country food security by 2020? Food, Agriculture, and the Environmental Discussion Paper 27. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, DC.

  143. Schlegel R and Cakmak I 1997 Physical mapping of rye genes determining micronutritional efficiency in wheat. In Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Food Production and Environment. Eds. T Ando, K Fujita, T Mae, H Matsumoto, S Mori and J Sekiya. pp. 287–288. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Vol. 78. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

  144. Schlegel R, Cakmak I, Torun B, Eker S, Tolay I, Ekiz H, Kalayci M and Braun H J 1998 Screening for zinc efficiency among wheat relatives and their utilisation for an alien gene transfer. Euphytica 100, 281–286.

  145. Shrimpton R 1993 Zinc deficiency: Is it widespread but underrecognized? SCN News, 9, 23–27.

  146. Sillanpää M 1990 Micronutrients assessment at the country level: An international study. FAO Soils Bulletin 63. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.

  147. Sillanpää M and Vlek P L G 1985 Micronutrients and the agroecology of tropical and Mediterranean regions. Fertil. Res. 7, 151–167.

  148. Singh G B 1998 Fertilizer use and sustainability of Indian agriculture. In Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production in Asia. Eds. A E Johnston and J K Syers. pp. 279-289. CAB International.

  149. Smith F W 2001 Sulphur and phosphorus transport systems in plants. Plant Soil 232, 109–118.

  150. Smith K A, McTaggart I P and Tsuruta H 1997. Emissions of N2O and NO associated with nitrogen fertilization in intensive agriculture, and the potential for mitigation. Soil Use Manage. 13, 296–304.

  151. Stearman R, Yaun D S, Yamaguchi-Iwai Y, Klausner R D and Dancis A 1996 A permease-oxidase complex involved in highaffinity iron uptake in yeast. Science 271, 1552–1557.

  152. Takagi S, Nomoto K and Takemoto T 1984 Physiological aspect of mugineic acid, a possible phytosiderophore of graminaceous plants. J. Plant Nutr. 7, 469–477.

  153. Takahashi M, Yamaguchi H, Nakanishi H, Shioiri T, Nishizawa N K and Mori S 1999 Cloning two genes for nicotianamine aminotransferase, a critical enzyme in iron acquisition (strategy II) in graminaceous plants. Plant Physiol. 121, 947–956.

  154. Takahashi M, Nakanishi H, Kawasaki S, Nishizawa N K and Mori S 2001 Enhanced tolerance of rice to low iron availability in alkaline soils using barley nicotianamine aminotransferase genes. Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 466–469.

  155. Tandon H L S 1995 Major nutritional constraints to crop production and the soil fertility management strategies in different agroclimatic regions of Asia. In Proceedings of the International Potash Institute Colloquium on Potassium in Asia: Balanced Fertilization to Increase and Sustain Agricultural Production. pp. 43–72. Chiang Mai, Thailand, 21-24 February, 1995. International Potash Institute, Basel.

  156. Tandon H L S 1998 Use of external inputs and the state of efficiency of plant nutrient supplies in irrigated cropping systems in Uttar Pradesh, India. In Proceedings of the IFPRI/FAO Workshop on Soil Fertility, Plant Nutrient Management, and Sustainable Agriculture: The future Through 2020. Eds. P Gruhn, F Goletti, and R N Roy. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC and Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

  157. Tillman D 1999 Global environmental impacts of agricultural expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 96, 5995–6000.

  158. Timsina J and Connor D J 2001 Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems: issues and challenges. Field Crops Res. 69, 93–132.

  159. Tyler G and Strom L 1995 Differing organic acid exudation patterns explain calcifuge and acidifuge behaviour of plants. Ann. Bot. 75, 75–78.

  160. UNDP 1999 Human Development Report. Oxford University Press, Cary, NC.

  161. Van Kessel C and Hartley C 2000 Agricultural management of grain legumes: has it led to an increase in nitrogen fixation? Field Crops Res. 65, 165–181.

  162. Vansuyt G, Mench M, Briat J F 2000 Soil-dependent variability of leaf iron accumulation in transgenic tobacco overexpressing ferritin. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 6, 499–506.

  163. Veldkamp E and Keller M 1997 Fertilizer-induced nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 48, 69–77.

  164. Von Uexküll H R and Mutuert W 1995 Global extent, development and economic impact of acid soils. In Plant-Soil Interactions at low pH: Principles and Management. Eds. R A Date, N J Grundon, G E Rayment and ME Probert. pp. 5–19. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

  165. von Wiren N, Gazzarrini S, Gojon A and Frommer W B 2000a The molecular physiology of ammonium uptake and retrieval. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 254–261.

  166. Von Wiren N, Lauter F R, Ninnemann O, Gillisen B, Walch-Liu P, Engels C, Jost W and Frommer W B 2000b Differential regulation of three functional ammonium transporter genes by nitrogen in root hairs and by light in leaves of tomato. Plant J. 21, 167–175.

  167. Vose P B 1982 Iron nutrition in plants: a world overview. J. Plant Nutr. 5, 238–249.

  168. Waddington S R and Karigwindi J 2001 Productivity and profitability of maize + groundnut rotations compared with continuous maize on smallholder farms in Zimbabwe. Exp. Agric. 37, 83–98.

  169. Wei L C, Loeppert R H and Ocumpaugh W R 1997 Iron deficiency stress response in Fe deficiency resistant and susceptable subterranean clover: importance of induced H+ release J. Exp. Bot. 48, 329–346.

  170. Welch R M 1995 Micronutrient nutrition of plants. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 14, 49–82.

  171. Welch R M 1999 Importance of seed mineral nutrient reserves in crop growth and development. In Mineral Nutrition of Crops: Fundamental Mechanisms and Implications. Ed. Z. Rengel. pp. 205–226. Haworth Press, New York.

  172. Welch R M and Graham R D 1999 A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs. Productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Res. 60, 1–10.

  173. Welch R M and Graham R D 2000 A new paradigm for world agriculture: productive, sustainable, nutritious, healthful food systems. Food Nutr. Bull. 21, 361–366.

  174. Williams L E and Miller A J 2001 Transporters responsible for the uptake and partitioning of nitrogenous solutes. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 52, 659–688.

  175. Williams T O, Powell J M and Fernandez-Rivera S 1995 Soil fertility maintenance and food crop production in semi-arid West Africa: Is reliance on manure a sustainable strategy? Outlook Agric. 24, 43–47.

  176. Wong M T C, Gibbs P, Nortcliff S and Swift R S 1999 Measurement of the acid neutralising capacity of agroforestry tree promising added to tropical soils. J. Agric. Sci. 134, 269–276.

  177. Yadav R L 1998 Factor productivity trends in a rice-wheat cropping system under long-term use of chemical fertilizers. Exp. Agric. 34, 1–18.

  178. Yadav R L, Dwivedi B S and Pandey P S 2000a Rice-wheat cropping system: assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer inputs. Field Crops Res. 65, 15–30.

  179. Yadav R L, Dwivedi B S, Prasad K, Tomar O K, Shurpali N J and Pandey P S 2000b Yield trends, and changes in soil organic-C and available NPK in a long-term rice-wheat system under integrated use of manures and fertilizers. Field Crops Res. 68, 219–246.

  180. Yang Z M, Sivaguru M, Horst W J and Matsumoto H 2000 Aluminium tolerance is achieved by exudation of citric acid from roots of soybean (Glycine max). Physiol. Plant. 110, 72–77.

  181. Yilmaz A, Ekiz H, Torun B, Gültekin I, Karanlik S, Bagci S A and Cakmak I 1997 Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat grown on zincdeficient calcareous soils in Central Anatolia. J. Plant Nutr. 20, 461–471.

  182. Yip R 1994 Iron deficiency: contemporary scientific issues and international programmatic approaches. J. Nutr. 124, 1479–1490.

  183. Zhao H and Eide D 1996a The yeast ZRT1 gene encodes the zinc transporter protein of a high-affinity uptake system induced by zinc limitation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2454–2458.

  184. Zhao H and Eide D 1996b The ZRT2 gene encodes the low affinity zinc transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 23203–23210.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cakmak, I. Plant nutrition research: Priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Plant and Soil 247, 3–24 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021194511492

Download citation

  • food security
  • macronutrients
  • micronutrients
  • mineral fertilization
  • molecular biology
  • nutrient efficiency
  • nutrient management