The Netherlands are a small, low-lying delta in W. Europe (42000 km2; 50°–54° N; 3°–8° E), mainly consisting of alluvial deposits from the North Sea and from the large rivers Rhine and Meuse. The country was `created by man'. The conversion of natural aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems into drained agricultural land was a major cultural operation over the past 1000 years. Roughly 55% of the country's surface area is still agricultural land. Some decades ago, The Netherlands' landscape was characterised by an armoured coastline and bridled estuaries, a drastically reduced area of saline and freshwater marshes, fully regulated rivers and streams, and numerous artificial lakes. The aquatic ecosystems beyond the influence of the large rivers, the Pleistocene raised bogs and moor lands, have almost been completely annihilated in the past. Acidification and eutrophication led to the deterioration of the remaining softwater lake vegetation. Last but not least, an artificial drainage system was constructed, leading to an unnatural water table all over the country, high in summer, low in winter. Only very recently, some 25 years ago, the tide has been turned and ecological rehabilitation and restoration of disturbed ecosystems are in full swing now, enhanced by the European Union policy to set aside agricultural land in the Netherlands in favour of the development of `nature'. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands is given. Starting from the conceptual basis of restoration ecology, the successes and failures of hundreds of restoration projects are given. Numerous successful projects are mentioned. In general, ecological restoration endeavours are greatly benefiting from progressive experience in the course of the years. Failures mainly occur by insufficient application of physical, chemical or ecological principles. The spontaneous colonisation by plants and animals, following habitat reconstruction, is preferred. But sometimes the re-introduction of keystone species (e.g. eelgrass; salmon; beaver) is necessary in case the potential habitats are isolated or fragmented, or when a seed bank is lacking, thus not allowing viable populations to develop. Re-introduction of traditional management techniques (e.g. mowing without fertilisation; low intensity grazing) is important to rehabilitate the semi-natural and cultural landscapes, so characteristic for the Netherlands. For aquatic ecosystems proper (estuaries, rivers, streams, larger lakes) the rule of thumb is that re-establishment of the abiotic habitat conditions is a pre-requisite for the return of the target species. This implies rehabilitation of former hydrological end geomorphological conditions, and an increase in spatial heterogeneity. The `bottom-up' technique of lake restoration, viz. reduction in nutrient loadings, and removal of nutrient-rich organic sediment, is the preferred strategy. The `top-down' approach of curing eutrophicated ecosystems, that is drastic reduction of fish stock, mainly bream, and introduction of carnivorous fish, may be considered as complementary. For semi-aquatic ecosystems (river-fed and rain-fed peat moors, brook valleys, coastal dune slacks) it also counts that the abiotic constraints should be lifted, but here the species-oriented conservation strategy, the enhancement of the recovery of characteristic plant and animal species, is mainly followed. An important pre-requisite for the rehabilitation of the original natural or semi-natural
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Nienhuis, P., Bakker, J., Grootjans, A. et al. The state of the art of aquatic and semi-aquatic ecological restoration projects in the Netherlands* . Hydrobiologia 478, 219–233 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021090900341
- Intensity Grazing
- Coastal Dune
- Freshwater Marsh
- Dune Slack
- Carnivorous Fish