The stress distribution within spherical aluminum-alloy (2024) projectiles impacting plane limestone (calcite) targets was observed by converting residual microhardness maps obtained for cross-sections of recovered projectiles impacting from 0.8 to 1.3 km/s. A maximum residual yield stress zone was observed to migrate toward the rear of the impacting projectiles with increasing impact velocity. The maximum occurred at a normalized depth z′/a m ≅ 0.5 (where a m is the contact radius); consistent with the theoretical result for elastic impacts. Computer simulations showed good agreement with experiment, and demonstrated that elastic assumptions were valid well into the plastic deformation regime.
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Randrianarivony, F.M., Lair, S., Quinones, S.A. et al. Experimental observations and computer simulations of spherical aluminum-alloy projectiles impacting plane limestone targets. Journal of Materials Science 37, 5197–5207 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021083800238