Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 555–569 | Cite as

Preschoolers at Risk for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder: Family, Parenting, and Behavioral Correlates

Article

Abstract

This community study assigned 129 4-year-olds to groups at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), both ADHD and ODD, or no problems. Mothers of children at risk for ODD reported more family dysfunction, felt less competent as parents, suggested fewer solutions to child behavior problems, demonstrated a less assertive approach to child management, and reported more child internalizing problems than did mothers of children not elevated on ODD symptoms. Mothers of children at risk for ADHD reported higher personal depression scores than did those of the non-ADHD subgroup. Children at risk for ADHD evidenced the most difficulties in school where teachers reported more social behavior, classroom management, and internalizing problems relative to other children not at risk for ADHD. When solving child management problems, mothers of children in all groups suggested twice as many controlling/negative management strategies as positive/preventive strategies. In addition, faced with oppositional and conduct problems, mothers of children in all groups increased controlling/negative suggestions and decreased positive/preventive suggestions. Mothers of girls at risk for ADHD, ODD, and ADHD/ODD gave more rewards per positive behavior than did mothers of boys.

ADHD oppositional defiant disorder preschoolers family functioning 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Achenbach, T.M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M., & Edlebrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Teacher Report Form and the Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Alessandri, S. M. (1992). Attention, play, and social behavior in ADHD preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 289-302.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  5. August, G. J., Braswell, L., & Thuras, P. (1998). Diagnostic stability of ADHD in a community sample of school aged children screened for disruptive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 345-356.Google Scholar
  6. August, G. J., Realmuto, G. M., Joyce, T., & Hektner, J. M. (1999). Persistence and desistance of oppositional disorder in a community sample of children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1262-1270.Google Scholar
  7. Barkley, R. A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  8. Barkley, R. A., Anastopoulos, A. D., Guevremont, D. C., & Fletcher, K. E. (1992). Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Mother-adolescent interactions, family beliefs and conflicts, and maternal psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, 263-288.Google Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. A., & Cunningham, C. E. (1979). The effects of Ritalin on the mother-child interactions of hyperactive children. The Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 201-208.Google Scholar
  10. Barkley, R. A., & Edlebrock, C. (1987). Assessing situational variation in children's problem behaviors: The Home and School Situations Questionnaires. In R. J. Prinz (Ed.), Advances in behavioral assessment of children and families (Vol 3, pp. 157-176). New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-Year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 546-547.Google Scholar
  12. Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1991). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria—III: Mother-child interactions, family conflicts and maternal psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 233-250.Google Scholar
  13. Barkley, R. A., Karlsson, J., Pollard, S., & Murphy, J. (1985). Developmental changes in the mother-child interactions of hyperactive boys: Effects of two dose levels of Ritalin. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 705-715.Google Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. S., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Byles, J., Byrne, C., Boyle, M. H., & Offord, D. R. (1988). Ontario Child Health Study: Reliability and validity of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process, 27, 97-104.Google Scholar
  16. Byrne, J. M., DeWolfe, N. D., & Bawden, H. N. (1998). Assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers. Child Neuropsychology, 4, 49-66.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, S. B. (1994). Hard-to-manage preschoolers: Externalizing behavior, social competence, and family context at two-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 147-166.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, S. B. (1995). Behavior problems in preschool children: A review of recent research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 113-149.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, S. B., Breaux, A. M., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1986). Correlates and predictors of hyperactivity and aggression: A longitudinal study of parent-referred problem preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 217-234.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, S. B., Breaux, A. M., Ewing, L. J., Szumowski, E. K., & Pierce, E. W. (1986). Parent identified problem preschoolers: Mother-child interaction during play at intake and 1-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 14, 425-440.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, S. B., & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Follow-up of hard to manage preschoolers: Adjustment at age 9 and predictors of continuing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 871-890.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, S. B., Shaw, D. S., & Gilliom, M. (2000). Early externalizing behavior problems: Toddlers and preschoolers at risk for later maladjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 467-488.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46Google Scholar
  24. Cunningham, C. E., & Barkley, R. A. (1979). The interactions of normal and hyperactive children with their mothers in free play and structured tasks. Child Development, 50, 217-224.Google Scholar
  25. Cunningham, C. E., Benness, B., & Siegel, L. S. (1988). Family functioning, time allocation, and parental depression in the families of normal and ADDH children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 169-177.Google Scholar
  26. Cunningham, C. E., Boyle, M., Offord, D., Racine, Y., Hundert, J., Secord, M., et al. (2000). Tri-ministry study: Correlates of school-based parenting course utilization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 928-933.Google Scholar
  27. Cunningham, C. E., Bremner, R. B., & Boyle, M. (1995). Large group community-based parenting programs for families of preschoolers at risk for disruptive behavior disorders: Utilization, cost effectiveness, and outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1141-1159.Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham, C. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1987). The peer interactions of normal and attention deficit disordered boys during free play, cooperative task, and simulated classroom situations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 247-268.Google Scholar
  29. Cunningham, C. E., Siegel, L. S., van der Spuy, H. I. J., Clark, M. L., & Bow, S. J. (1985). The behavioral and linguistic interactions of normal and specifically language delayed children with their mothers. Child Development, 56, 1389-1403.Google Scholar
  30. Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. W. (1987). The provisions of social relationships and adaption to stress. Advances in Personal Relationships, 1, 37-67.Google Scholar
  31. Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. A., & Pettit, G. S. (1998). Multiple risk factors in the development of behavior problems: Group and individual differences. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 469-493.Google Scholar
  32. DeVito, C., & Hopkins, J. (2001). Attachment, parenting, and marital dissatisfaction as predictors of disruptive behavior in preschoolers. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 215-231.Google Scholar
  33. DuPaul, G. J., McGoey, K. E., Eckert, T. L., & VanBrakle, J. (2001). Preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Impairments in behavioral, social, and school functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 508-515.Google Scholar
  34. Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171-180.Google Scholar
  35. Gardner, F. E. (1994). The quality of joint activity between mothers and their children with behaviour problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 935-948.Google Scholar
  36. Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD a meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1036-1045.Google Scholar
  37. Ingoldsby, E. M., Shaw, D. S., Owens, E. B., & Winslow, E. B. (1999). A longitudinal study of interparental conflict, emotional and behavioral reactivity, and preschoolers' adjustment problems among low income families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 343-356.Google Scholar
  38. Jensen, P. S., Shervette, R. E., III, Xenakis, S. N., & Richters, J. (1993). Anxiety and depressive disorders in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: New findings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1203-1209.Google Scholar
  39. Johnston, C. (1996). Parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher and lower levels of oppositional-defiant behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 85-104.Google Scholar
  40. Johnston, C., & Behrenz, K. (1993). Child rearing discussions in families of nonproblem children and ADHD children with higher lower levels of aggressive-defiant behavior. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 9, 53-65.Google Scholar
  41. Johnston, C., Cunningham, C. E., & Hardy, C. L. (1988). A couples parenting measure. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, New York, November.Google Scholar
  42. Johnston, C., & Freeman, W. (1997). Attributions for child behavior in parents of children without behavior disorders and children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 636-645.Google Scholar
  43. Johnston, C., & Mash, E. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 167-175.Google Scholar
  44. Jouriles, E. N., Pfiffner, L. J., & O'Leary, S. G. (1988). Marital conflict, parenting, and toddler conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 197-206.Google Scholar
  45. Kuhne, M., Schachar, R., & Tannock, R. (1997). Impact of comorbid oppositional or conduct problems on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1715-1725.Google Scholar
  46. LaFreniere, P. J., & Capuano, F. (1997). Preventive intervention as means of clarifying directions of effects in socialization: Anxious-withdrawn preschoolers case. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 551-564.Google Scholar
  47. Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Stein, M. A., Loney, J., Trapani, C., Nugent, K., et al. (1998). Validity of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for younger children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 695-702.Google Scholar
  48. Lahey, B. B., Waldman, I. D., & McBurnett, K. (1999). Annotation: The development of antisocial behavior: An integrative causal model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 669-682.Google Scholar
  49. Mariani, M. A., & Barkley, R. A. (1997). Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 111-129.Google Scholar
  50. McFadyen-Ketchum, S. A., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Patterns of change in early childhood aggressive-disruptive behavior: Gender differences in prediction from early coercive and affectionate mother-child interactions. Child Development, 67, 2417-2433.Google Scholar
  51. McGee, R., Partridge, F., Williams, S., & Silva, P. A. (1991). A twelve-year follow-up of preschool hyperactive children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 224-225.Google Scholar
  52. Miller, L. S., Koplewicz, H. S., & Klein, R. G. (1997). Teacher ratings of hyperactivity, inattention, and conduct problems in preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 113-119.Google Scholar
  53. Munson, J. A., McMahon, R. J., & Spieker, S. J. (2001). Structure and variability in the developmental trajectory of children's externalizing problems: Impact of infant attachment, maternal depressive symptomatology, and child sex. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 277-296.Google Scholar
  54. Ostberg, M., & Hagekull, B. (2000). A structural modelling approach to the understanding of parent stress. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 615-625.Google Scholar
  55. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  56. Pavuluri, M. N., Luk, S. L., & McGee, R. (1996). Help-seeking for behavior problems by parents of preschool children: A community study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 215-222.Google Scholar
  57. Pelham, W. E., Jr., Gnagy, E. M., Greenslade, K. E., & Milich, R. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 210-218.Google Scholar
  58. Pelham, W. E., Lang, A. R., Atkeson, B., Murphy, D. A., Gnagy, E. M., Greiner, A. R., et al. (1997). Effects of deviant child behavior on parental distress and alcohol consumption in laboratory interactions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 413-424.Google Scholar
  59. Pisterman, S., McGrath, P. J., Firestone, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., & Mallory, R. (1989). Outcome of parent-mediated treatment of preschoolers with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 636-643.Google Scholar
  60. Pisterman, S., McGrath, P., Firestone, P., Goodman, J. T., Webster, I., Mallory, R., et al. (1992). The effects of parent training on parenting stress and sense of competence. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 24, 41-58.Google Scholar
  61. Rothbaum, F., & Weisz, J. R. (1994). Parental caregiving and child externalizing behavior in nonclinic samples: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 55-74.Google Scholar
  62. Schachar, R., & Tannock, R. (1995). Test of four hypotheses for the comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 639-648.Google Scholar
  63. Shaw, D. S., Keenan, K., Vondra, J. I., Delliquadri, E., & Giovannelli, J. (1997). Antecedents of preschool children's internalizing problems: A longitudinal study of low-income families. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1760-1767.Google Scholar
  64. Shaw, D. S., Vondra, J. I., Hommerding, K. D., Keenan, K., & Dunn, M. (1994). Chronic family adversity and early child behavior problems: A longitudinal study of low income families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1109-1122.Google Scholar
  65. Shaw, D. S., Winslow, E. B., Owens, E. B., Vondra, J. I., Cohn, J. F., & Bell, R. Q. (1998). The development of early externalizing problems among children from low-income families: A transformational perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 95-107.Google Scholar
  66. Shelton, T. L., Barkley, R. A., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barett, S. et al. (1998). Psychiatric and psychological morbidity as a function of adaptive disability in preschool children with aggressive and hyperactive-impulsive-inattentive behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 475-494.Google Scholar
  67. Silverstein, A. B. (1969). An alternative factor analytic solution for Wechsler's Intelligence Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 29, 763-767.Google Scholar
  68. Speltz, M. L., McClellan, J., DeKlyen, M., & Jones, K. (1999). Preschool boys with oppositional defiant disorder: Clinical presentation and diagnostic change. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 838-845.Google Scholar
  69. Spieker, S. J., Larson, N. C., Lewis, S. M., Keller, T. E., & Gilchrist, L. (1999). Developmental trajectories of disruptive behavior problems in preschool children of adolescent mothers. Child Development, 70(2), 443-458.Google Scholar
  70. Stevenson, J., Richman, N., & Graham, P. (1985). Behavior problems and language abilities at three years and behavioral deviance at eight years. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 215-230.Google Scholar
  71. Stormont-Spurgin, M., & Zentall, S. S. (1995). Contributing factors in the manifestation of aggression in preschoolers with hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 491-509.Google Scholar
  72. Szatmari, P., Boyle, M., & Offord, D. R. (1989). ADDH and conduct disorder: Degree of diagnostic overlap and differences among correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 865-872.Google Scholar
  73. Webster-Stratton, C. W. (1994). Advancing videotape parent training: A comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 583-593.Google Scholar
  74. Webster-Stratton, C. W. (1998). Preventing conduct problems in Head Start children: Strengthening parenting competencies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 715-730.Google Scholar
  75. Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1997). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 93-109.Google Scholar
  76. Wechsler, D. (1967). Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  77. White, C., & Barrowclough, C. (1998). Depressed and non-depressed mothers with problematic preschoolers: Attributions for child behaviors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 385-398.Google Scholar
  78. Wood, D., Halfon, N., Scarlata, D., Nesacheck, P., & Nessim, S. (1993). Impact of family relocation on children's growth, development, school function, and behavior. JAMA, 270, 1334-1338.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hamilton Health SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Centre for the Study of Children at RiskMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural NeurosciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations