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Towards a new age of virtual ADME/TOX and multidimensional drug discovery

Abstract

With the continual pressure to ensure follow-up molecules to billion dollar blockbuster drugs, there is a hurdle in profitability and growth for pharmaceutical companies in the next decades. With each success and failure we increasingly appreciate that a key to the success of synthesized molecules through the research and development process is the possession of drug-like properties. These properties include an adequate bioactivity as well as adequate solubility, an ability to cross critical membranes (intestinal and sometimes blood-brain barrier), reasonable metabolic stability and of course safety in humans. Dependent on the therapeutic area being investigated it might also be desirable to avoid certain enzymes or transporters to circumvent potential drug-drug interactions. It may also be important to limit the induction of these same proteins that can result in further toxicities. We have clearly moved the assessment of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/TOX) parameters much earlier in the discovery organization than a decade ago with the inclusion of higher throughput systems. We are also now faced with huge amounts of ADME/TOX data for each molecule that need interpretation and also provide a valuable resource for generating predictive computational models for future drug discovery. The present review aims to show what tools exist today for visualizing and modeling ADME/TOX data, what tools need to be developed, and how both the present and future tools are valuable for virtual filtering using ADME/TOX and bioactivity properties in parallel as a viable addition to present practices.

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Ekins, S., Boulanger, B., Swaan, P.W. et al. Towards a new age of virtual ADME/TOX and multidimensional drug discovery. J Comput Aided Mol Des 16, 381–401 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020816005910

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Keywords

  • Drug Discovery
  • Throughput System
  • Metabolic Stability
  • Therapeutic Area
  • Future Drug