Phosphorus (P) is one of the major plant growth-limiting nutrients although it is abundant in soils in both inorganic and organic forms. Phosphate solubilizing micro-organisms (PSMs) are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants in a more environmentally friendly and sustainable manner. Although solubilization of P compounds by microbes is very common under laboratory conditions, results in the field have been highly variable. This variability has hampered the large-scale use of PSMs in agriculture. Many reasons have been suggested for this variability, but none of them have been extensively investigated. In spite of the importance of PSMs in agriculture, the detailed biochemical and molecular mechanisms of P solubilization are not known. Recent work in our laboratory has shown that the conditions employed to isolate PSMs do not reflect soil conditions and that PSMs capable of effectively releasing P from soil are not so highly abundant as was suggested in earlier studies. These studies have also indicated that the mineral phosphate solubilizing (mps) ability of microbes could be linked to specific genes, and that these genes are present even in non P solubilizing bacteria. Understanding the genetic basis of P solubilization could help in transforming more rhizosphere-competent bacteria into PSMs. Further research should also focus on the microbial solubilization of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) phosphates, as well as mobilization of the organic phosphate reserves present in the soils.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Al-Niemi T S, Kahn M L and McDermott T R 1997 P metabolism in the Rhizobium tropici-bean symbiosis. Plant Physiol. 113, 1233-1242.
Ae N, Arihara J and Okada K 1991 Phosphorus response of chick pea and evaluation of phosphorus availability in Indian alfisols and vertisols. In Phosphorus Nutrition of Grain Legumes. Eds. C Johansen, KK Lee and KL Sharawat. pp. 33-41. ICRISAT, India.
Abbott L K, Robson A D and De Bore G 1984 The effect of phosphorus on the formation of hyphae in soil by the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum. New Phytol. 97, 437-446.
Ahmed S 1995 Agriculture-Fertilizer Interface in Asia-Issues of Growth and Sustainability. Oxford and IBH Publ. Co. New Delhi.
Alexander M 1977 Introduction to soil microbiology. Wiley New York.
Amijee F, Tinker P B and Stribley D P 1989 Effects of phosphorus on the morphology of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal root system of leek (Allium porrum L). Plant Soil 119, 334-336.
Antibus R K, Sinsabaugh R L and Linkins A E 1991 Phosphatase activities and phosphorus uptake from inositiol phosphates by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Can. J. Bot. 70, 794-801.
Arnou, D I 1953 In Soil and Fertilizer Phosphorus in Crop Nutrition (IV). Ed. WH Pierre. Noramn, AG. Acad. Press NY.
Arshad M and Frankenberger W T Jr. 1998 Plant growth-regulating substances in the rhizosphere: Microbial production and functions. Adv. Agron. 62, 46-151.
Asea, P E A, Kucey R M N and Stewart J W B 1988 Inorganic phosphate solubilization by two Penicillium species in solution culture and in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20, 459-464.
Babu-Khan S, Yeo T C, Martin W L, Duron M R, Rogers R D and Goldstein A H 1995 Cloning of a mineral phsophate-solubilizing gene from Pseudomonas cepacia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 972-978.
Bajpai P D and Sundra Rao W V B 1971 Phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Part 2. Extracellular production of organic acids by selected bacteria solubilizing insoluble phosphate. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 17, 44-45.
Banik S and Dey B K 1982 Available phosphate content of an alluvial soil as influenced by inoculation of some isolated phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Plant Soil 69, 353-364.
Banik S and Dey B K 1983 Phosphate solubilizing potentiality of micro-organisms capable of utilizing aluminum phosphate as sole phosphate source. Zentrabl. Backteriol. Prasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. II 138, 17-23.
Barber S A 1984 Soil nutrient bioavailability. John Wily, New York, USA.
Bardiya M C and Gaur A C 1972 Rock phosphate dissolution by bacteria. Indian J. Microbiol. 12, 269-271.
Barea J M, Azcon R and Hyman D S 1975 Possible synergistic interactions between endogone and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in low phosphate soils. In Endomycorrhizas. Eds. FE Sanders, B Mooose and PB Tinkler pp. 409-417. Academic Press, London.
Bashan Y, Puente M E, Rodriquea M N, Toledo G, Holguin G, Ferrera-Cerrato R and Pedrin S 1995 Survival of Azospirillum brasilense in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of 23 soil types. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 1938-1945.
Baya A M, Robert S B and Ramos C A 1981 Vitamin production in relation to phosphate solubilization by soil bacteria. Soil Biol. Biochem. 13, 527-532.
Bolan N S, Robson A D and Barrow N I 1987. Effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza on avalibility of iron phosphates to plants. Plant Soil 99, 401-410.
Brazil G M, Kenefick L, Callanan M, Haro A, De Lorenzo V, Dowling D N and O'Gara 1995 Construction of a rhizosphere pseudomonad with potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls and detection of bph gene expression in the rhizosphere. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 1946-1952.
Brentnall B A 1991 Phosphate fertilizers: Economic aspects. In Ullman's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. A19. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, New York. 425 pp.
Brown M E 1972. Plant growth substances produced by microorganisms of soil and rhizosphere. J Appl. Bacteriol. 35, 443-451.
Buwalda J G and Goh K M 1982 Host-fungus competition for carbon as a cause of growth depressions in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal rye grass. Soil Biol. Biochem. 14, 103-106.
Cassman K G, Whiteny A S and Fox R L 1981 Phosphorus requirements of soybean and cow pea as affected bymode of N nutrition. Agron. J. 73, 17-22.
Chabot R, Antoun H and Cecas P 1993 Stimulation de la croissancedu mais et de la laitue romaine par des microorganismes dissolvant le phosphore inorganique. Can. J. Microbiol. 39, 941-947.
Chabot R, Antoun H and Cesas M P 1996 Growth promotion of maize and lettuce by phosphate solubilizing Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli. Plant Soil 184, 311-321.
Colbert S F, Hendson M, Ferri M and Schroth M N 1993 Enhanced grwoth and activity of a biocontrol bacterium genetically engineered to utilize salicylate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 2071-2076.
Cress W A, Johnson G V and Barton L L 1984 The role of endomycorrhizal fungi in iron uptake by Hilaria jamesii. J. Plant Nutr. 40, 547-555.
Cunningham J E and Kuiack C 1992 Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphates by Penicillium bilaii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 1451-1458.
Datta M, Banik S and Gupta R K 1982 Studies on a phytohormone producing phosphate solubilizing Bacillus firmus in augmenting paddy yield in acid soils of Nagaland. Plant Soil 69, 365-373.
Deng S, Kahn M L and McDermott T R 1998 Characterization and transposon mutagenesis of a non-specific acid phosphatase cloned from Rhizobium meliloti. Arch. Microbiol. 170, 18-26.
De Freitas J R, Banerjee M R and Germida J J 1997 Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria enhance the growth and yield but not the phosphorus uptake of canola. Biol. Fert. Soil 24, 358-364.
Denarie J, Debelle F and Prome J C 1996 Rhizobium lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation factors: Signaling molecules mediating recognition and morphogenesis. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 65, 503-535.
Duff R B, Webley D M and Scott R O 1969 Solubilization of minerals and related materials by 2-ketogluconic acid producing bacteria. Soil Sci. 95, 105-114.
Gaur A C, Medan M and Ostwal K P 1973 Solubilization of phosphate ores by native microflora of rock phosphates. Indian J. Expt. Biol. 11, 427-429.
Glick B R 1995 The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J. Microbiol. 41, 109-177.
Glick B R and Bashan Y 1997 Genetic manipulation of plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance biocontrol of phytopathogens. Biotechnol. Adv. 15, 353-378.
Golstein A H 1986 Bacterial phosphate solubilization: Historical perspective and future prospects. Am. J. Alt. Agric. 1, 57-65.
Goldstein A H 1995 Recent progress in understanding the molecular genetics and biochemistry of calcium phosphate solubilization by gram negative bacteria. Biol. Agric. Hort. 12, 185-193.
Goldstein A H and Liu S T 1987 Molecular cloning and regulation of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola. Bio/Technol. 5, 72-74.
Goldstein A H, Rogers R D and Mead G 1993 Mining by microbe. Bio/Technol. 11, 1250-1254.
Gottschal J C 1992 Substrate capturing and growth in various ecosystems. J. Appl. Bacteriol. Symp. Suppl. 73, 39S-48S.
Gray T R G 1975 Survival of vegetative microbes in soil. Symp. Soc. Gen. Micorbiol. 26, 327-364.
Gyaneshwar P, Naresh Kumar G and Parekh L J 1998a Effect of buffering on the phosphate-solubilizing ability of micro-organisms. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 14, 669-673.
Gyaneshwar P, Naresh Kumar G and Parekh L J 1998b Cloning of mineral phosphate solubilizing genes from Synechocystis PCC 6803. Curr Sci. 74, 1097-1099.
Gyaneshwar P, Parekh L J, Archana G, Poole P S, Collins M D, Hutson R A and Naresh Kumar G 1999 Involvement of a phosphate starvation inducible glucose dehydrogenase in soil phosphate solubilization by Enterobacter asburiae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 171, 223-229.
Halder A K, Misra A K and Chakrabarty P K 1991 Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by Bradyrhizobium. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 29, 28-31.
Halder A K, Banerjee A, Misra A K and Chakrabarty P K 1992 Role of ammonium and nitrate on release of soluble phosphate from hydroxyapatite by Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. J. Basic Microbiol. 32, 325-330.
Halder A K and Chakrabarty P K 1993 Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by Rhizobium. Folia Microbiol. 38, 325-330.
Harrison M J and Van Buuren 1995 A phosphate transporter from mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme. Nature 378, 626-629.
Hattori T and Hattori R 1976 The physical environment in soil microbiology: An attempt to extend principles of microbiology to soil micro-organisms. CRC Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 4, 423-461.
Hayman D S 1974 Plant growth responses to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza VI. Effects of light and temperature. New Phytol. 73, 71-80.
Hayman D S 1983 The physiology of vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Can. J. Bot. 61, 944-963.
Heijnen C E and Van Veen J A 1991 A determination of protective microhabitats for bacteria introduced into soil. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 85, 73-80.
Heijnen C E, Van Elsas J D, Kuikman P J and Van Veen J A 1988 Dynamics of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii introduced into soil: The effect of betonite clay on predation by protozoa. Soil Biol. Biochem. 20, 483-488.
Ho W C and Ko W H 1985 Soil microbiostasis: Effects of environmental and edaphic factors. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17, 167-170.
Itoh H S 1987 Characteristics of phosphorus uptake of chick pea in comparison with pigeon pea, soybean and maize. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 33, 417-422.
Jacobson C B, Pasternak J J and Glick B R 1994 Partial purification and characterization of ACC deaminase from the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR 12-2. Can J. Microbiol. 40, 1019-1025.
Jasper D A, Robson A D and Abbott L K 1979 Phosphorus and the formation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. Soil Biol. Biochem. 11, 501-505.
Jjemba P K and Alexander M 1999 Possible determinants of rhizosphere competence of bacteria. Soil Biol. Biochem. 31, 623-632.
Katznelson H and Bose B 1959 Metabolic activity and phosphate dissolving capability of bacterial isolates from wheat roots in the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil. Can. J. Microbiol. 5, 79-85.
Kim K Y, McDonald G A and Jordan D 1999 Solubilization of hydroxyapatite by Enterobacter agglomerans and cloned E. coli in culture medium. Biol. Fert. Soil 24, 347-352.
Kim K Y, Jordan D and McDonald G A 1998a Enterobacter agglomerans, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and microbial activity in soil: Effect of carbon sources. Soil Biol Biochem. 30, 995-1003.
Kim K Y, Jordan D and Krishnan H B 1998b Expression of genes from Rahnella auqatilis that are necessary for mineral phosphate solubilization in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 159, 121-127.
Koide T R and Schreiner P R 1992 Regulation of Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 43, 557-581.
Kucey R M N 1983 Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi in various cultivated and virgin Albreta soils. Can J. Soil Sci. 63, 671-678.
Kucey R M N 1987 Increased phosphorus uptake by wheat and field beans inoculated with a phosphorus solubilizing Penicillium billai strain and with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 2699-2703.
Kucey R M N 1988 Effect of Penicillium billai on the solubility and uptake of P and micronutrients from soil by wheat. Can. J. Soil Sci. 68, 261-270.
Kucey R M N, Jenzen H H and Leggett M E 1989 Microbially mediated increases in plant available phosphorus. Adv. Agron. 42, 199-228.
Kundu B S and Gaur A C 1980 Establishment of nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria in the rhizosphere and their effect on the nutrient uptake of the wheat crop. Plant Soil 57, 223-230.
Kundu B S and Gaur A C 1984 Rice responses to inoculation with nitrogen fixing and P-solubilizing micro-organisms. Plant Soil 79, 227-234.
Kush G S and Bennet J (eds) 1992 Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Rice: Potential and Prospects. International Rice Research Institute, Manila Philippines.
Ladha J K, Parrek R P and Beker M 1992 Stem-nodulating legumerhizobium symbiosis and its agronomic use in low land rice. Adv. Soil Sci. 20, 148-192.
Lapeyrie F 1988 Oxalate synthesis from soil bicarbonate by fungus Paxillus involutus. Plant Soil 110, 3-8.
Lapeyrie F, Rangers J and Vairelles D 1991 Phosphate-solubilizing activity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in vitro. Can J. Bot. 69, 342-346.
Lee A and Bagyaraj A J 1986 Effect of inoculation with vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and either phosphate rock dissolving bacteria or thiobacilli on dry matter production and uptake of phosphorus by tomato plants. N. Z. J. Agric. Res. 29, 525-531.
Leinhos V and Nacek O 1994 Biosynthesis of auxins by phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale). Microbiol. Res. 149, 31-35.
Leisinger K M 1999 Biotechnology and food security. Curr. Sci. 76, 488-500.
Liu S T, Lee L Y, Tai C-H, Hung-Y-S Chang H, Wolform R, Rogers R and Goldstein A H 1992 Cloning of an Erwinia herbicola gene necessary for gluconic acid production and enhanced mineral phosphate solubilization in E. coli HB 101: Nucleotide sequence and probable involvement in biosynthesis of the coenzyme Pyrroloquinoline quinone. J. Bacteriol. 174, 5814-5819.
Long S R 1996 Rhizobium symbiosis: Nod factors in perspective. Plant Cell 8, 1885-1896.
Louw H A and Webley D M 1958 A plate method for estimating the number of phosphate dissolving and acid producing bacteria. Nature 182, 1317-1318.
Louw H A and Webley D M 1959 A study of a soil bacteria dissolving certain mineral phosphate fertilizers and related compounds. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 22, 227-233.
Matsushita K, Arents J C, Bader R, Yamada M, Adachi O and Postma P W 1997 Escherichia coli is unable to produce pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ). Microbiol. 143, 3149-56.
McDermott T R 1999 Phosphorus assimilation and regulation in Rhizobia. In Nitrogen Fixation in Prokaryotes: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Ed. EW Triplett. Horizon Scientific Press USA (in press).
Metcalf W W, Steel P M and Wanner B L 1990 Identification of phosphate starvation inducible genes in Escherichia coli K 12 by DNA sequence analysis of psi:lacZ (Mudl) transcriptional fusions. J. Bacteriol. 172, 3191-3200.
Moghimi A, Tate M E and Oades J M 1978 Characterization of rhizospheric products especially 2-ketogluconic acid. Soil Biol. Biochem. 10, 283-287.
Molla M A Z and Chowdary A A 1984 Microbial mineralization of organic phosphate in soil. Plant Soil 78, 393-399.
Moose B 1980 Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza research for tropical agriculture. Research Bulletin 194, Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Honolulu, HI, USA; University of Hawaii.
Mylona P, Pawlowski K and Bisseling T 1995 Symbiotic Nitrogen fixation. Plant Cell 7, 869-885.
Nahas E 1996 Factors determining rock phosphate solubilization by micro-organisms. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 112, 567-572.
Ozanne P G 1980 Phosphate nutrition of plants: A general treatise. In The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. Eds. FE Khasawneh, EC Sample and EJ Kamprath. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Madison WI.
Patrick W H Jr., Mikkelsen D S and Wells B R 1985 Plant nutrient behavior in flooded soils. In Fertilizer Technology and Use. 3rd edn. Ed. OP Engelstad. SSA, Madison WI.
Paul E A and Clark F E 1988 Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Acad. Press Inc. San Diego. Calif.
Paul N B and Sundara Rao W V B 1971 Phosphate dissolving bacteria and VAM fungi in the rhizosphere of some cultivated legumes. Plant Soil 35, 127-132.
Pawlowski K and Bisseling T 1992. Rhizobial and actinorhizal symbiosis: What are the shared features. Plant Cell 4, 1899-1913.
Peng S, Eissentat D M, Graham J H, Williams K and Hodge N C 1993 Growth depressions in mycorrhizal citrus at high phosphorus supply: Analysis of carbon costs. Plant Physiol. 101, 1063-1071.
Postma J, Van Elsas J D, Govaert J M and Van Veen J A 1988 Dynamics of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii introduced into soil as determined by immunofluorescence and selective plating techniques. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 53, 251-260.
Reyes I, Bernier L, Simard R R and Antoun H (1999) Effect of nitrogen source on the solubilization of different inorganic phosphates by an isolate of Penicillium rugulosum and two UV induced mutants. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 28, 281-290.
Richardson A E 1994 Soil micro-organisms and phosphate availability. In Soil Biota Management in Sustainable Agriculture. Eds. CE Pankhurst, BM Doube, VVSR Gupts and PR Grace pp. 50-62. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Roos W and Luckner M 1984 Relationships between proton extrusion and fluxes of ammonium ions and organic acid in Penicillium cyclopium. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130, 1007-1014.
Sah R N and Millelsen D S 1986 Transformation of inorganic phosphorus during the flooding and draining cycle of soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50, 62-67.
Sanders F E and Tinker P B 1973 Phosphate flow into mycorrhizal roots. Pest. Sci. 4, 385-395.
Sperber J I 1957 Solubilization of mineral phosphates. Nature 180, 994-995.
Sperber J I 1958 The incidence of apatite-solubilizing organisms in the rhizosphere and soil. Aust. J. Aric. Res. 9, 778-781.
Son C L and Smith S E 1995. Mycorrhizal growth responses: interaction between photon irridiance and phosphorus nutrition. New Phytol. 108, 305-314.
Stevenson F J 1986 Cycles of Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sulfur Micronutrients. Wiley New York.
Subba Rao N S 1982 In Advances in Agricultural Microbiology. Ed. NS Subba Rao. pp. 229-305. Oxford and IBH Publ. Co.
Taha S M, Mahmoud S A Z, El Damtay A H and El-Hafez 1969 Activity of phosphate dissolving bacteria in Eyptian soils. Plant Soil 31, 149-160.
Tandon H L S 1987 Phosphorus Research and Production in India. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization New Delhi. 160 pp.
Thomson B D, Robson A D and Abbott L K 1986 Effects of phosphorus on the formation of mycorrhizas by Gigasopra calospora and Glomus fusciculatum in relation to root carbohydrates. New Phytol. 103, 751-756.
Tinker P B 1980 In The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture. Eds. FE Khasawneh, EC Sample and EJ Kamprath. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Madison WI.
Toro M, Azcon R and Herrera R 1996 Effects on yield and nutrition of mycorhizal and nodulated Pueraria phaseoloides exerted by P-solubilizing bacteria. Biol. Fert. Soil 21, 23-29.
Toro M, Azcon R and Barea J 1997 Improvement of arbuscular mycorrhiza development by inoculation of soil with phosphatesolubilizing rhizobacteria to improve rock phosphate bioavailability (32P) and nutrient cycling. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 4408-4412.
Torriani-Gorini A and Ludtket D 1985 The pho regulon in E. coli K 12. In The Molecular Biology of Bacterial Growth. Eds. M Schaechter, FC Neidhardt, J Ingrahm and NO Kjeldegaard. pp. 224-243. Jones and Barlett Inc, Boston.
Van Veen J A, Leonard S, Van Overbeek L S and Van Elsas J D 1997 Fate and activity of micro-organisms introduced into soil. Microbiol. Molecular Biol. Rev. 61, 121-135.
Van Elsas J D, Van Overbeek L S and Fouchier R 1991 A specific marker, pat, for studying the fate of introduced bacteria and their DNA in soil using a combination of detection techniques. Plant Soil 138, 49-60.
Vasil I K 1998 Biotechnology and food security for 21st century: A real world perspective. Nature Biotechnol. 16, 399-400.
Vassielv M, Azcon R, Barea JM and Vassilev N 1998 Application of an encapsulated fungus in solubilization of inorganic phosphate. J. Biotechnol. 63, 67-72.
Ventura W and Ladha J K 1997. Sesbania phosphorus requirements when used as biofertilizers for long term rice cultivation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61, 1240-1244.
Vig A C and Dev G 1984 Phosphorus adsorption characteristics of some acid and alkaline soils. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 32, 235-239.
Wanner B L 1994 Multiple controls of the Escherichia coli pho regulon by the Pi sensor Pho R, the catabolic regulatory protein Cre C and acetyl phosphate. In Phosphate in Micro-organisms: Cellular andMolecular Biology. Eds. A Torriani-Gorrini, E Yagil and S Silver. pp. 13-21. ASM Press, Washington.
Wanner B L 1996 Phosphorus assimilation and control of phosphate regulon. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. Eds. FC Neidhart, R Curtiss, JL Ingraham, M Schaechter and HE Umbarger. pp. 1357-1381. ASM Press. Washington.
Wanner B L and Chang B D 1987 The pho BR operon in E. coli K12. J. Bacteriol. 169, 5569-5574.
Willsky G R and Malamy M H 1976 Control of Synthesis of alkaline phosphatase and the phosphate binding protein in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 127, 595-609.
About this article
Cite this article
Gyaneshwar, P., Naresh Kumar, G., Parekh, L.J. et al. Role of soil microorganisms in improving P nutrition of plants. Plant and Soil 245, 83–93 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020663916259