A pot experiment confirmed that pigeonpea could efficiently utilize various sources of phosphorus (P) (aluminium phosphate, iron phosphate and apatite), irrespective of genotype. A qualitative assay method for iron (Fe)-P solubilizing activity showed that root exudates collected from P-deficient pigeonpea contained Fe-P solubilizing substances and that they were released mainly from root tips. Citric, malic, malonic, succinic and piscidic acids were identified in root exudates. Citric and piscidic acids release from roots was increased by low-P treatment in all the genotypes tested. The release rates of citric and piscidic acids were affected by the P concentration of shoots rather than that of roots. The pigeonpea roots released approximately 5–100 times more piscidic acid than citric acid depending on P stress status, plant age and genotype. When organic acids were added to Alfisols, citric acid was most capable of mobilizing P from the soil, followed by piscidic acid and malic acid. No correlation was found between genotypic variability in the release rates of citric and piscidic acids from the roots under low-P treatment at hydroponic culture and in the growth and P uptake of plants on Alfisols. Although citric and piscidic acids released from pigeonpea roots may play a partial role in solubilizing unavailable insoluble P in soils, the releases were thought to be an unsatisfactory strategy for explaining genotypic variation in low P availability of pigeonpea.
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Ishikawa, S., Adu-Gyamfi, J.J., Nakamura, T. et al. Genotypic variability in phosphorus solubilizing activity of root exudates by pigeonpea grown in low-nutrient environments. Plant and Soil 245, 71–81 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020659227650
- phosphorus deficiency
- phosphorus solubilization
- pigeonpea genotype
- piscidic acid
- root exudates