We describe a new extinct subspecies of the Javan lutung—Trachypithecus auratus sangiranensis—based on an isolated, tooth-bearing upper jaw. The specimen was in volcanic breccia situated between the Lower Pucangan and the Upper Kalibeng Formations 500 m south of the village of Sangiran, near Surakarta, central Java, Indonesia. The new fossil monkey bears morphological similarities to the two living species of leaf monkey from Java, Presbytis comata comata and Trachypithecus auratus auratus, and to the Middle Pleistocene form, Trachypithecus cristatus [=auratus] robustus, from Tegoean, central Java. It is significantly larger than any of these forms, and differs from them in details of dental anatomy. Because the greatest number of similarities are between the new fossil and Trachypithecus auratus subspecies, we designated the specimen as T. a. sangiranensis. The geochronological age of the breccia from which the fossil came, is 1.9± 0.05 Ma (million years), making T. a. sangiranensis one of the oldest fossil monkeys from eastern Asia.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aimi, M. (1981). Fossil Macaca nemestrina (Linnaeus, 1766) from Java, Indonesia. Primates 22: 409–413.
Benefit, B. (1987). The molar morphology, natural history and phylogenetic position of the middle miocene monkey Victoriapithecus, PhD Dissertation, New York University.
Brandon-Jones, D. (1995). A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae: Superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new subspecies. Raffles. Bull. Zool. 43: 3–43.
Cerling, T. E., Harris, J. M., MacFadden, B. J., Leakey, M. G., Quade, J., Eisenmann, V., and Ehleringer, J. R. (1997). Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153–158.
Curtis G. H. (1981). Man's immediate forerunners: Establishing a relevant time scale in anthropological and archaeological research. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B 292: 7–20.
Hooijer, D. A. (1962). Quaternary langurs and macaques from the Malay Archipelago. Zool. Verhandl. 55: 3–64.
Jablonski, N. G. (1993). Quaternary environments and the evolution of primates in Eurasia, with notes on two specimens of fossil Cercopithecidae from China. Fol. Primatol. 60: 118–132.
Jablonski, N. G. (1997). The relevance of environmental change and primate life histories to the problem of hominid evolution in east Asia. In Jablonski, N. G. (ed.), The Changing Face of East Asia During the Tertiary and Quaternary, Centre of Asian Studies (The University of Hong Kong), Occasional Papers and Monograph No. 124, Hong Kong, pp. 462–475.
Jablonski, N. G. (1998). The response of catarrhine primates to Pleistocene environmental fluctuations in East Asia. Primates 39: 29–37.
Jablonski, N. G., and Gu, Y.-M. (1991). A reassessment of Megamacaca lantianensis, a large monkey from the Pleistocene of north-central China. J. Hum. Evol. 20: 51–66.
Jablonski, N. G. and Kelley, J. (1997). Did a major immunological event shape the evolutionary histories of apes and old world monkeys? J. Hum. Evol. 33: 513–520.
Jablonski, N. G., and Tyler, D. E. (1994). The oldest fossil monkey from southeast Asia. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. (Suppl. 18): 113–114.
Kelley, J. (1997). Paleobiological and phylogenetic significance of life history in Miocene hominoids. In Begun, D. R., Ward, C. V., and Rose, M. D. (eds.), Function, Phylogeny, and Fossils: Miocene Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 173–208.
Matsu'ura, S. (1982). A chronological framing for the Sangiran hominids: Fundamental study by the fluorine dating method. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus., Ser. D (Anthropology) 8: 1–53.
Matsu'ura, S. (1985). A consideration of the stratigraphic horizons of hominid finds from Sangiran by the fluorine method. In Watanabe, N., and Kadar, D. (eds.), Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41,1976–1979, Special Bulletin Number 4, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 359–366.
Napier, P. H. (1985). Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles, Part 3: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily Colobinae, British Museum (Natural History), London.
Orchiston, D. W., and Siesser, W. G. (1982). Chronostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominids of Java. Mod. Quat. Res. Southeast Asia 7: 131–149.
Rosenblum, L. L., Supriatna, J., Hasan, M. N., and Melnick, D. J. (1997). High mitochondria! DNA diversity with little structure within and among leaf monkey populations (Trachypithecus cristatus and Trachypithecus auratus). Int. J. Primatol. 18: 1005–1028.
Stremme, H. (1911). Die Saugetiere mit Ausnahme der Proboscidier. In Selenka, L., and Blanckenhorn, M. (eds.), Die Pithecanthropus-Schichten auf Java, Engelmann, Leipzig.
Suzuki, M., and Wikarno, B. (1982). Fission-track ages of pumice tuffs layers and javites of hominid bearing formations in Sangiran, Central Java. Comm. XI Int. Congr. INQUA 2: 322, Moscow.
Swisher, C. C., Curtis, G. H., Jacob, T., Getty, A. G., Suprijo, A., and Widiasmoro (1994). Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science 263: 1118–1121.
von Koenigswald, G. H. R. (1940). Neue Pithecanthropus-Funde 1936–1938. Ein Beitrag zur Keentnis der Praehominiden. Wet. Med. Dienst Mijnb. Ned. Indie. 28: 1–205.
Watanabe, N., and Kadar, D. (eds.) (1985). Quaternary Geology of the Homind Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesian-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41,1976–1979, Special Bulletin No. 4, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, Indonesia.
Weitzel, V., and Groves, C. P. (1985). The nomenclature and taxonomy of the colobine monkeys of Java. Int. J. Primatol. 6: 400–409.
Weitzel, V., Yang, C. M., and Groves, C. P. (1988). A catalogue of primates in the Singapore Zoological Reference Collection, Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore. Raffles Bull. Zool. 36: 1–166.
Widiasmoro, S., and Sampurno, B. (1993). The Pleistocene paleoecology of Sangiran, Central Java, Unpublished paper presented at the International Conference on Human Paleoecology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta.
Yokoyama, T., Hadiwisastra, S., Hantoro, W., Matsuda, T., and Nishimura, S. (1980). K-Ar age of the "Lahar Tuff' lowest part of the Pucangan formation, Pleistocene of Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia. Riset, Geologi dan Pertambangan, LIPI 3: 1–7.
About this article
Cite this article
Jablonski, N.G., Tyler, D.E. Trachypithecus auratus sangiranensis, A New Fossil Monkey from Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Primatology 20, 319–326 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020544519463