International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 53–71 | Cite as

Postconflict Affiliation and Stress-Related Behavior of Long-Tailed Macaque Aggressors

  • Marjolijn Das
  • Zsuzsa Penke
  • Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff
Article

Abstract

Previous studies on macaques and baboons showed that after agonistic conflicts aggressees as well as aggressors show an increase in stress-related behavior such as scratching. Reconciliation reduces stress-related behavior of the aggressee. We investigated the influence of various affiliative postconflict behaviors of the aggressor on the aggressor's scratching rates in captive long-tailed macaques: reconciliation, contacts with the aggressee's kin (or substitute reconciliation), and contact with other group members (or triadic affiliation). After a conflict, the aggressor showed an increase in rates of scratching. Scratching rates were reduced after reconciled conflicts compared to nonreconciled conflicts. Substitute reconciliation did not reduce scratching when we controlled for the influence of reconciliation, i.e., the aggressor might not interpret it as a substitute for reconciliation. Triadic affiliation did not reduce scratching rates, hence, triadic affiliation probably does not console the aggressor. Scratching rates after reconciliation are significantly lower than scratching rates after triadic affiliation. This proves that the stress-reducing effect of reconciliation is not due to the calming effect of general body contact but that the stress reduction is specifically associated with contacts with the former opponent. The contestants are anxious about their relationship, and only reconciliation takes away this anxiety. Reconciliation is thus an important social repair strategy.

behavior macaques postconflict reconciliation stress 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227-266.Google Scholar
  2. Angst, W. (1974). Das Ausdrucksverhalten des Javaneraffen Macaca fascicularis Raffles 1821. Fortschritte der Verhaltensforschung, Beiheft 15 zur Z. Tierpsychol.Google Scholar
  3. Aureli, F. (1997). Conflict and anxiety in nonhuman primates: An emotional perspective to conflict resolution. Aggress. Behav. (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Aureli, F., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991a). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). I. The social events. Ethology 89: 89-100.Google Scholar
  5. Aureli, F., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991b). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). II. Coping with the uncertainty. Ethology 89: 101-114.Google Scholar
  6. Aureli, F., van Schaik, C. P., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1989). Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Am. J. Primatol. 19: 39-51.Google Scholar
  7. Aureli, F., Das, M., and Veenema, H. C. (1997). Differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (Macaca fascicularis, M. fuscata, and M. sylvanus). J. Comp. Psychol. 111(1): 91-99.Google Scholar
  8. Castles, D. L., and Whiten, A. (1996). Baboon relationships: Scratching and feelings. Abstract from the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  9. Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. (1989). Redirected aggression and reconciliation among vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops. Behaviour 110: 258-275.Google Scholar
  10. Cords, M. (1992). Post-conflict reunions and reconciliation in long-tailed macaques. Anim. Behav. 44: 57-61.Google Scholar
  11. Das, M. Penke, Zs., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1997). Affiliation between aggressors and third parties following conflicts in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Int. J. Primatol. 18: 157-179.Google Scholar
  12. de Waal, F. B. M. (1988). Reconciliation among primates. In Mason, W., and Mendoza, S. (eds.), Primate Social Conflict, Alan Liss, New York, pp. 111-144.Google Scholar
  13. de Waal, F. B. M., and Luttrell, L. M. (1989). Towards a comparative socioecology of the genus Macaca: Different dominance styles in rhesus and stumptail macaques. Am. J. Primatol. 19: 83-109.Google Scholar
  14. de Waal, F. B. M., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1981). Side-directed communication and agonistic interactions in chimpanzees. Behaviour 77: 164-198.Google Scholar
  15. de Waal, F. B. M., and van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 5: 55-66.Google Scholar
  16. de Waal, F. B. M., and Yoshihara, D. (1983). Reconciliation and redirected affection in rhesus monkeys. Behaviour 85: 223-241.Google Scholar
  17. de Waal, F. B. M., van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M., and Netto, W. J. (1976). An ethological analysis of types of agonistic interactions in a captive group of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Primates 17(3): 257-290.Google Scholar
  18. Diezinger, F., and Anderson, J. R. (1986). Starting from scratch: A first look at a “displacement activity” in group-living rhesus monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 11: 117-124.Google Scholar
  19. Judge, P. G. (1991). Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Am. J. Primatol. 23: 225-237.Google Scholar
  20. Kaplan, J. R. (1986). Psychological stress and behavior in nonhuman primates. In Mitchell, G., and Erwin, J. (eds), Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 2A. Behavior, Conservation, and Ecology, Alan Liss, New York, pp. 455-492.Google Scholar
  21. Kappeler, P. M., and van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Methodological and evolutionary aspects of reconciliation among primates. Ethology 92: 51-69.Google Scholar
  22. Maestripieri, D., Schino, G., Aureli, F., and Troisi, A. (1992). A modest proposal: Displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Anim. Behav. 44: 967-979.Google Scholar
  23. Pavani, S., Maestripieri, D., Schino, G., Turillazzi, P. G., and Scucchi, S. (1991). Factors influencing scratching behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Folia Primatol. 57: 34-38.Google Scholar
  24. Petit, O., and Thierry, B. (1994). Reconciliation in a group of Guinea baboons. In Roeder, J. J., Thierry, B., Anderson, J. R., and Herrenschmidt, N. (eds.), Current Primatology, Vol. II. Strasbourg, Université Louis Pasteur, pp. 137-145.Google Scholar
  25. Schino, G., Scucchi S., Maestripieri, D., and Turillazzi, P. G. (1988). Allogrooming as a tension-reduction mechanism: A behavioral approach. Am. J. Primatol. 16: 43-50.Google Scholar
  26. Siegel, S., and Castellan, N. J. (1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, McGraw-Hill, Singapore.Google Scholar
  27. Silk, J. B. (1987). Social behavior in evolutionary perspective. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T.T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 318-329.Google Scholar
  28. Thierry, B. (1986). A comparative study of aggression and response to aggression in three species of macaque. In Else, J. G., and Lee, P. C. (eds.), Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behavior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 307-313.Google Scholar
  29. van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1967). The facial displays of the catarrhine monkeys and apes. In Morris, D. (ed.), Primate Ethology, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London, pp. 7-68.Google Scholar
  30. Vehrencamp, S. (1983). A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim. Behav. 31: 667-682.Google Scholar
  31. Verbeek, P., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1996). Agonism and its aftermath in a captive group of Cebus apella. Abstract from the XVIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  32. Watts, D. P. (1995). Post-conflict social events in wild mountain gorillas. II. Redirection, side direction, and consolation. Ethology 100: 158-174.Google Scholar
  33. York, A. D., and Rowell, T. E. (1988). Reconciliation following aggression in patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Anim. Behav. 36: 502-509.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjolijn Das
    • 1
  • Zsuzsa Penke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff
    • 1
  1. 1.Ethology & Socio-ecology GroupUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.ELTEBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations