The lack of an effective evaluation method for salt tolerance in the screening process is one of the reasons for limited success in conventional salt tolerance breeding. This study was designed to identify useful agronomic parameters for evaluation of salt tolerance and to evaluate genotypes by multiple agronomic parameters for salt tolerance at different growth stages. Twelve genotypes were grown in a greenhouse in sand and irrigated with nutrient solutions of control and treatments amended with NaCl and CaCl2 (5:1 molar concentration) at 4.4 and 8.2 dS m-1 electrical conductivity. Wide genotypic differences in relative salt tolerance based on seedling growth were identified. The duration of reproductive growth between panicle initiation and anthesis was either reduced or increased by salinity, but the response was not strictly correlated with relative salt tolerance in seed yield among genotypes. Wide genotypic differences in relative salt tolerance based on spikelet and tiller numbers were identified. Few genotypic differences were identified for fertility and kernel weight. Spikelet and tiller numbers contributed most of the variation to seed yield among parameters investigated. When genotypes were ranked for salt tolerance based on the means of multiple parameters, dramatic changes of salt tolerance at early and seed maturity stages were observed in two genotypes, GZ5291-7-1-2 and GZ178. IR63731-1-1-4-3-2 was identified with a favourable combination of salt tolerance at early seedling and seed maturity stages. Cluster group ranking of genotypes based on multiple agronomic characters can be applied in salt tolerance breeding to evaluate salt tolerance and may have great advantage over conventional methods.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Akbar, M., 1985. Breeding for salinity tolerance in rice. In: IRRI (Ed.), Salt-affected Soils of Pakistan, India and Thailand, pp. 39–63. The International Rice Research Institute. Los Banos, Philippines.
Counce, P.A. & B.R. Wells, 1990. Rice plant population density effect on early-season nitrogen requirement. J Prod Agric 3: 390–393.
Cui, H., Y. Takeoka & T. Wada, 1995. Effect of sodium chloride on the panicle and spikelet morphogenesis in rice. Jpn J Crop Sci 64: 593–600.
Dewey, D.R., 1962. Breeding crested wheatgrass for salt tolerance. Crop Sci 2: 403–407.
Epstein, E., J.D. Norlyn, D.W. Rush, R.W. Kingsbury, D.B. Kelley, G.A. Cunningham & A.F. Wrona, 1980. Saline culture of crops: A genetic approach. Science 210: 399–404.
Flowers, T.J. & A.R. Yeo, 1981. Variability in the resistance of sodium chloride salinity within rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. New Phytol 88: 363–373.
Gravois, K.A. & R.W. McNew, 1993. Genetic relationships among and selection for rice yield and yield components. Crop Sci 33: 249–252.
Gregorio, G.B., D. Senadhira & R.D. Mendoza, 1997. Screening Rice for Salinity Tolerance. IRRI Discussion Paper Series No. 22. The International Rice Research Institute, Manila, The Philippines.
Grieve, C.M., M.R. Guzy, J.A. Poss & M.C. Shannon, 1999. Screening eucalyptus clones for salt tolerance. Hortscience 34: 867–870.
Heenan, D.P., L.G. Lewin & D.W. McCaffery, 1988. Salinity tolerance in rice varieties at different growth stages. Aust J Exper Agric 28: 343–349.
IRRI, 1996. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. Fourth edn., The International Rice Research Institute, Manila, The Philippines.
IRRI, 1997. Rice varieties boost yield and improve saline soils. In: C. Dedolph & G. Hettel (Eds.), Partners Making a Difference, pp. 37. The International Rice Research Institute. Los Banos, Philippines.
Jolliffe, I.T., O.B. Allen & B.R. Christie, 1989. Comparison of variety means using cluster analysis and dendrograms. Exp Agric 25: 259–269.
Kato, T. & K. Takeda, 1996. Associations among characters related to yield sink capacity in space-planted rice. Crop Sci 36: 1135–1139.
Khatun, S., C.A. Rizzo & T.J. Flowers, 1995. Genotypic variation in the effect of salinity on fertility in rice. Plant and Soil 173: 239–250.
Khrais, T., Y. Leclerc & D.J. Donnelly, 1998. Relative salinity tolerance of potato cultivars assessed by in vitro screening. Amer J Potato Res 75: 207–210.
Logan, S.H. & P.B. Boyland, 1983. Calculating heat units via a sine function. J Am Soc Hort Sci 108: 977–980.
Lutts, S., J.M. Kinet & J. Bouharmont, 1995. Changes in plant responses to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. J Exp Bot 46: 843–1852.
Maas, E.V. & C.M. Hoffman, 1977. Crop salt tolerance-Current assessment. J Irrig Drain Div ASCE 103: 115–134.
Maas, E.V., G.J. Hoffman, G.D. Chaba, J.A. Poss & M.C. Shannon, 1983. Salt sensitivity of corn at various growth stages. Irrig Sci 4: 45–57.
Mass, E.V. & J.A. Poss, 1989. Salt sensitivity of cowpea at various growth stages. Irrig Sci 10: 313–320.
Ott, L.R., 1993. An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, 4th edn., Duxbury Press, Belmont, CA.
Pearson, G.A. & L. Bernstein, 1959. Salinity effects at several growth stages of rice. Agron J 51: 654–657.
Royo, A. & R. Aragues, 1999. Salinity-yield response functions of barley genotypes assessed with a triple line source sprinkler system. Plant and Soil 209: 9–20.
SAS Institute, Inc., 1994. SAS/SAT User's Guide, version 6, 4th edn., SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Scardaci, S.C., A.U. Eke, J.E. Hill, M.C. Shannon & J.D. Rhoades, 1996. Water and Soil Salinity Studies on California Rice. Rice Publication No. 2, Cooperative Extension, University of California, Colusa, CA.
Shannon, M.C., 1978. Testing salt tolerance variability among tall wheatgrass lines. Agron J 70: 719–722.
Shannon, M.C., 1997. Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv in Agron 60: 75–120.
Shannon, M.C., J.D. Rhoades, J.H. Draper, S.C. Scardaci & M.D. Spyres, 1998. Assessment of salt tolerance in rice cultivars in response to salinity problems in California. Crop Sci 38: 394–398.
Yeo, A.R. & T.J. Flowers, 1986. Salinity resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a pyramiding approach to breeding varieties for saline soils. Austr J Plant Physiol 13: 161–174.
Yeo, A.R., M.E. Yeo, S.A. Flowers & T.J. Flowers, 1990. Screening of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes for physiological characters contributing to salinity resistance, and their relationship to overall performance. Theor Appl Genet 79: 377–384.
Yoshida, S., D.A. Forno & J.H. Cock, 1971. Laboratory Manual for Physiological Studies of Rice. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, The Philippines.
Zeng, L. & M.C. Shannon, 2000a. Salinity effects on seedling growth and yield components of rice. Crop Sci 40: 996–1003.
Zeng, L. & M.C. Shannon, 2000b. Effects of salinity on grain yield and yield components of rice at different seeding densities. Agron J 92: 418–423.
About this article
Cite this article
Zeng, L., Shannon, M. & Grieve, C. Evaluation of salt tolerance in rice genotypes by multiple agronomic parameters. Euphytica 127, 235–245 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020262932277
- cluster analysis
- genotype evaluation
- Oryza sativa
- salt tolerance
- yield components