Skip to main content

Productivity of Local Chickens under Village Management Conditions

Abstract

The productivity of local chickens under village management conditions was studied in six villages situated in three climatic zones within Morogoro District in Tanzania. Two villages were picked in each climatic zone (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet) for the study. The data were obtained by actual measurement, qualitative observations and interview of members of the households directly responsible for the care of chickens. In addition, data sheets were given to selected farmers to record the performance of their chickens. The mean flock size for the three zones was 16.2, with a range of 2 to 58. The overall mean clutch size, egg weight and hatchability were 11.8, 44.1 g and 83.6%, respectively. The overall mean chick survival rate to 10 weeks of age was 59.7%. The mean live weights for cocks and hens were 1948 g and 1348 g, respectively. The mean growth rates to the age of 10 weeks were 4.6 g/day and 5.4 g/day, while those from 10 to 14 weeks of age were 8.4 g/day and 10.2 g/day for female and male birds, respectively. The age at first lay ranged between 6 and 8 months, and the average hen had three laying cycles per year. Most of the chickens were left to scavenge during the day and were provided with simple housing at night (95.2% of the owners). Only small amounts of supplementary feeds were occasionally given and minimal health care was provided. It was concluded that the low productivity of chickens was partly due to the prevailing poor management practices, in particular the lack of proper health care, poor nutrition and housing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

REFERENCES

  1. Agbede, G.B., Teguia, A. and Manjeli, Y., 1995. Traditional poultry production in Cameroon. Tropicultura, 13, 22-24

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aini, I., 1990. Indigenous chicken production in South East Asia. World's Poultry Science Journal, 46, 51-57

    Google Scholar 

  3. Dessie, T., 1996. Studies on village population production systems in Central highlands of Ethiopia, (MSc thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden)

    Google Scholar 

  4. French, M.H., 1942. The productivity of native poultry. East African Agricultural Journal, 7, 175

    Google Scholar 

  5. French, K.M. and Ritter, L., 1981. Practical Poultry Raising, (TransCentury Corporation, Springfield, VA, USA)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Gunaratne, S.P., Chandrasiri, D.N., Mangalika Hemalatha, W.A.P. and Roberts, J.A., 1993. Feed resource base for scavenging chickens in Sri Lanka. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25, 249-257

    Google Scholar 

  7. Katule, A.M., 1990. Studies on prospects of improving the performance of the local chicken population in Tanzania by crossbreeding, (PhD thesis, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Kuit, H.G., Traore, A. and Wilson, R.T., 1986. Livestock production in central Mali: ownership, management and productivity of poultry in the traditional sector. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 18, 222-231

    Google Scholar 

  9. Kyvsgaard, N. and Urbina, R., 1996. Supplementing poultry diet with tree leaves or seeds — on-farm research in Nicaragua. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 8, 82-90

    Google Scholar 

  10. Leeson, S. and Summers, J.D., 1991. Commercial Poultry Nutrition, (University Books, Guelph, Ontario)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Magwisha, H.B., 1997. Prevalence of helminthoses and effects of deworming and supplementary feeding on live weight gains on free range chickens, (MVM Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Matthewman, R.W., 1977. A survey of small livestock production at village level in the derived Savannah and lowland Forest Zone of Southwest Nigeria, (University of Reading, Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, Study No. 24)

  13. Minga, U.M., Katule, A.N., Maeda, T. and Musasa, J., 1989. Potential and problems of traditional chicken industry in Tanzania. In: Proceedings of the 7th Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific Conference, Arusha International Conference Centre, Arusha, Tanzania, vol. 7, 207-215

    Google Scholar 

  14. MOA, 1995. National Sample Census of Agriculture, 1995, (Ministry of Agriculture Report, Tanzania), vol. II

    Google Scholar 

  15. Mwakatundu, G.A.K., 1995. Nomadic pastoralism in Tanzania and its effect in environment. In: Livestock Production and Diseases in the Tropics, Proceedings of the VII International Conference of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Berlin, 25–29 September, 1995, vol. 2, 416-422

    Google Scholar 

  16. National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th revised edn, (National Academy Press, Washington DC)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Permin, A., Magwisha, H., Kassuku, A.A., Nansen, P., Bisgaard, M., Frandsen, F. and Gibbons, L., 1997. A cross-sectional study of helminths in rural scavenging poultry in Tanzania in relation to season and climate. Journal of Helminthology, 71, 233-240

    Google Scholar 

  18. SAS, 1992. SAS Statistics Users Guide, Statistical Analysis System, 5th edition, (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Sonaiya, E.B., 1990. The context and prospects for development of smallholder rural poultry production in Africa. CTA Seminar Proceedings, Smallholder Rural Poultry Production, 1, 35-60

    Google Scholar 

  20. Spradbrow, P.B., 1993. Newcastle disease in village chickens. Poultry Science Reviews, 2, 57-96

    Google Scholar 

  21. Wilson, R.T., 1979. Studies on the livestock of southern Darfur, Sudan. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 11, 143-150

    Google Scholar 

  22. Wilson, R.T., Traore, A., Kuit, H.G. and Slingerland, M., 1987. Livestock production in Central Mali: reproduction, growth and mortality of domestic fowl under traditional management. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 19, 229-236

    Google Scholar 

  23. Yami, A., 1995. Poultry production in Ethiopia. World's Poultry Science Journal, 51, 197-201

    Google Scholar 

  24. Yongolo, M.G.S., 1996. Epidemiology of Newcastle disease in village chickens in Tanzania, (MVM Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mwalusanya, N., Katule, A., Mutayoba, S. et al. Productivity of Local Chickens under Village Management Conditions. Tropical Animal Health and Production 34, 405–416 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020048327158

Download citation

  • chickens
  • climate
  • egg weight
  • flock size
  • growth
  • live weight
  • nutrition
  • scavenging
  • survival