Plant and Soil

, Volume 242, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Influence of nutrients, disturbances and site conditions on carbon stocks along a boreal forest transect in central Canada



The interacting influence of disturbances and nutrient dynamics on aboveground biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil C stocks was assessed as part of the Boreal Forest Transect Case Study in central Canada. This transect covers a range of forested biomes–-from transitional grasslands (aspen parkland) in the south, through boreal forests, and into the forested subarctic woodland in the north. The dominant forest vegetation species are aspen, jack pine and spruce. Disturbances influence biomass C stocks in boreal forests by determining its age-class structure, altering nutrient dynamics, and changing the total nutrient reserves of the stand. Nitrogen is generally the limiting nutrient in these systems, and N availability determines biomass C stocks by affecting the forest dynamics (growth rates and site carrying capacity) throughout the life cycle of a forest stand. At a given site, total and available soil N are determined both by biotic factors (such as vegetation type and associated detritus pools) and abiotic factors (such as N deposition, soil texture, and drainage). Increasing clay content, lower temperatures and reduced aeration are expected to lead to reduced N mineralization and, ultimately, lower N availability and reduced forest productivity. Forest floor and mineral soil C stocks vary with changing balances between complex sets of organic carbon inputs and outputs. The changes in forest floor and mineral soil C pools at a given site, however, are strongly related to the historical changes in biomass at that site. Changes in N availability alter the processes regulating both inputs and outputs of carbon to soil stocks. N availability in turn is shaped by past disturbance history, litter fall rate, site characteristics and climatic factors. Thus, understanding the life-cycle dynamics of C and N as determined by age-class structure (disturbances) is essential for quantifying past changes in forest level C stocks and for projecting their future change.

Boreal forest BFTCS C stocks disturbance C and N interactions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. AES (Atmospheric Atmosphere Service) 1983 Canadian Climate Normals, 1951-1980. Temperature and Precipitation. Prairie Provinces. Environment Canada, Downsview, Canada. 429 p.Google Scholar
  2. Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey 1987 The Canadian system of soil classification. Agric. Can. Publ. 1646, Res. Branch Agric. Can., Ottawa, Ontario. 164 p.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander E B, Kissinger E, Huecker R H and Cullen P 1989 Soils of southeast Alaska as sinks for organic carbon fixed from atmospheric carbon-dioxide. In Proceedings of Watershed '89, A Conference on the Stewardship of Soil, Air, and Water Resources. Ed. E B Alexander. pp 203-210. Juneau, AK. 21-23 Mar. 1989. USDA For. Serv., Juneau.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson J M 1992 Response of soils to climate change. Adv. Ecol. Res. 22, 163-210.Google Scholar
  5. Apps M J and Kurz W A 1993 The role of Canadian forests in the global carbon balance. In Carbon Balance of World's Forested Ecosystems: Towards a Global Assessment. pp 14-28. Publ. Acad. Finland No. 3/1993 Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  6. Apps M J and Price D T 1996 Chapter 1, Introduction. In Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and the Global Carbon Cycle. Eds. M J Apps and D T Price. pp 1-16. NATO ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change, Springer, Heidelberg, Vol. 40.Google Scholar
  7. Apps M J, Kurz W A, Luxmoore R J, Nilsson L O, Sedjo R J, Schmidt R, Simpson L G and Vinson T 1993 The changing role of circumpolar Boreal forests and tundra in global C cycle. Water Air Soil Pollut. 70, 39-53.Google Scholar
  8. Apps M J, Bhatti J S, Halliwell D and Jiang H 2000 Influence of uniform versus random disturbance regimes on carbon dynamics in the boreal forest of central Canada. In Global Climate Change and Soils of Cold Ecosystems. Eds. R Lal, J Kimble, H Eswarn, and B A Stewart. pp 107-122. Advances in Soil Science, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  9. Attiwill P M 1994 The disturbance of forest ecosystems: the ecological basis for conservative management. For. Ecol. Manage. 63, 247-300.Google Scholar
  10. Bhatti J S and Apps M J, 2000. Carbon and nitrogen storage in upland boreal forests. In Global Climate Change and Cold Regions Ecosystems. Eds. R. Lal, J M Kimble and B A Stewart. pp 79-89. Advances in Soil Science, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  11. Bhatti J S, Foster N W, Oja T, Moayeri M H and Arp PA 1998. Modelling potential sustainable biomass productivity in jack pine forest stands. Can. J. Soil Sci. 78, 105-113.Google Scholar
  12. Bhatti J S, Apps M J and Jiang H, 2000a. Examining the carbon stocks of boreal forest ecosystems at stand and regional scales. In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon. Eds. R Lal, J M Kimble, R F Follet and B A Stewart. Advances in Soil Science CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (In Press).Google Scholar
  13. Bhatti J S, Fleming R L, Arp P A and Foster N W 2000b Modelling pre-and post-harvesting fluctuations in soil temperature, soil moisture, and snowpack in boreal forests using ForHYMIII. For. Ecol. Manage. 138, 413-426.Google Scholar
  14. Binkley D, Smith F W and Son Y 1995 Nutrient supply and declines in leaf area and production in lodgepole pine. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 621-628.Google Scholar
  15. Bonnor G M 1985 Inventory of forest biomass in Canada. Can. For. Serv. Info. Rep. Fo42-80/1985. 63 p.Google Scholar
  16. Bonan, G B and Van Cleve K 1992 Soil temperature, nitrogen mineralization, and carbon source-sink relationships in boreal forests. Can J. For. Res. 22, 629-639.Google Scholar
  17. BOREAS Science Steering Committee, 1991. BOREAS: Global change and Biosphere-Atmosphere interactions in the boreal forest biome. Science Plan, August 1991, published by NASA.Google Scholar
  18. Boring L R, Swank W T, Waide J B and Henderson G S 1988 Sources, fates and impacts of nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 6, 119-159.Google Scholar
  19. Bubier J L, Moore T R, Bellisario L, Comer N T and Crill P 1995 Ecological controls on methane emissions from a northern peat-land complex in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, Manitoba, Canada. Global Biogeochemistry Cycle 9, 455-470.Google Scholar
  20. Cole D W 1995 Soil nutrient supply in natural and managed forests. Plant Soil 168, 43-53.Google Scholar
  21. Dixon, R K, Brown S, Houghton R A, Solomon A M, Trexler M C and Wisniewski J 1994 Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263, 185-190.Google Scholar
  22. Ecoregions Working Group 1989 Ecoregions Working Group of Canada Committee on Ecological Land Classification. Ecological Land Classification Series no 23 Sustainable Development Branch, Can Wildlife Serv., Conservation and Protection. Environmental Canada Ottawa, Canada 188p.Google Scholar
  23. Entry J A and Emmingham W H 1995 Influence of forest age on nutrient availability and storage in coniferous soils of the Oregon coastal range. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 114-120.Google Scholar
  24. Foster N W, Morrison I K, Hazlett P W, Hogan G D and Salerno M I 1995 Carbon and nitrogen cycling within mid-and late-rotation jack pine. In Carbon Forms and Functions in Forest Soils. Eds. W W McFee and J M Kelly. pp 355-376. SSSA, Inc. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  25. Foster N W, Bhatti J S and Arp P A 1997 Long term site productivity research for developing and validating computer models that contribute to scientifically based codes of practice. In Forest Management for Bioenergy. Proceedings of IEA Activties 1.1, 1.2 and 4.2 of Task XII. Eds. P Hakkila, M Heino and E Puranen. pp 203-212. The Finnish Forest Research Institute. Research Papers 640 Vantaa.Google Scholar
  26. Franzmeier D P, Lemme G D and Miles R J 1985 Organic carbon on soils of north central United States. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49, 702-708.Google Scholar
  27. Frazer D W, McColl J G and Powers R F 1990 Soil nitrogen mineralization in clearcutting chronosequence in a northern California conifer forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54, 1145-1152.Google Scholar
  28. Gale M R, and Grigal D F 1987 Vertical root distributions of northern tree species in relation to successional status. Can. J. For. Res. 17, 829-834.Google Scholar
  29. Gardner R H, Hargrove W W, Turner M G and Romme W H 1996 Climate change, disturbance and landscape dynamics. In Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Eds. B Walker and W Steffen. pp 149-172. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  30. Gholz H L, Fisher R F and Pritchett W L 1985 Nutrient dynamics in slash pine plantation ecosystems. Ecology 66, 647-659.Google Scholar
  31. Goulden M L, Wofsy S C, Harden J W, Trumbore S E, Crill P M, Gower S T, Fries T, Daube B C, Fan S M, Sutton D J, Bazzaz A and Munger J W 1998 Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279, 214-217.Google Scholar
  32. Grigal D F and Ohmann L F 1992 Carbon storage in upland forests of the Lake States. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56, 935-943.Google Scholar
  33. Hobbie S E 1996. Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaska tundra. Ecol. Monogr. 4, 503-522.Google Scholar
  34. Halliwell D H, Apps M J, and Price D T 1995 A survey of the forest site characteristics in a transect through the central Canadian boreal forest. Water Air Soil Pollut. 82: 257-270.Google Scholar
  35. Halliwell D H and Apps M J, 1997a BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) biometry and auxiliary sites: Locations and descriptions. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Ser., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. Inf. Rep. Fo42-266/1-1997E. 120 p.Google Scholar
  36. Halliwell D H and Apps M J 1997b BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) biometry and auxiliary sites: over-story and under-story data. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Ser., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. Inf. Rep. Fo42-266/2-1997E. 254 p.Google Scholar
  37. Halliwell D H and Apps M J 1997c BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) biometry and auxiliary sites: soils and detritus data. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Ser., North. For. Cent., Edmonton, Alberta. Inf. Rep. Fo42-266/3-1997E. 235 p.Google Scholar
  38. Harden J W, O'Neil K, Trumbore S E, Veldhuis H and Stock B J 1998 Moss and soil contribution to the annual net carbon flux in a mature boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28805-28816.Google Scholar
  39. Harmon M E, Ferrell W K and Franklin J F 1990 Effects of carbon storage of conversion of old-growth forests to young forests. Science 247, 699-702.Google Scholar
  40. Harrison R B, Henry C L, Cole D W and Xue D 1995 Long term changes in carbon content and chemistry of forest soils receiving high rate of organic matter amendments. In Carbon Forms and 13 Functions in Forest Soils. Eds. W W McFee and J M Kelly. pp 139-154. SSSA, Inc. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  41. Hogg E H 1999 Simulation of interannual response of trembling aspen stands to climatic variation and insect defoliation in western Canada. Ecol. Model. 114, 175-193.Google Scholar
  42. Homann P S, Sollins P, Chappell H N and Stangenberger A G 1995 Soil organic carbon in a mountainous forested region: relation to site characteristics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59, 1468-1475.Google Scholar
  43. Houghton J T, Meira Filho L G, Callander B A, Harris N, Kattenberg A and Maskell K (Eds.) 1995. Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of WGI to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York. 572 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Houghton R A, Hackler J L and Lawrence K T 1999. The U.S. carbon budget: contribution from land-use change. Science 285, 574-578.Google Scholar
  45. Huang W Z and Schoenau J J 1996 Forms, amount and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur in a boreal aspen forest soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 76, 373-385.Google Scholar
  46. Jeglum J K 1974 Relative influence of moisture-aeration and nutrient on vegetation and black spruce growth in northern Ontario. Can. J. For. Res. 4, 114-126.Google Scholar
  47. Johnson D W 1992 Effects of forest management on soil carbon storage. Water Air Soil Pollut. 64, 83-120.Google Scholar
  48. Kimmins J P 1996 Importance of soil and role of ecosystem disturbance for sustainable productivity of cool temperate and boreal forest. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60, 1643-1654.Google Scholar
  49. Kirschbaum M, Fischlin A et al., 1995. Climate change impacts on forests. In Watson et al (Eds.) Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, New York. pp 95-129.Google Scholar
  50. Klinka K, Wang Q and Kayahara G J 1994 Quantitative characterization of nutrient regime in some boreal forest soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 74, 29-38.Google Scholar
  51. Koch G W, Scholes R J, Steffen W L, Vitousek P M and Walker B H 1995 The IGBP Terrestrial Transects: Science Plan. Int. Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. IGBP Rep.36. Stockholm, Sweden. 61 p.Google Scholar
  52. Kurz W A and Apps M J 1995 An analysis of future carbon budgets of Canadian boreal forests. Water Air Soil Pollut. 82, 321-331.Google Scholar
  53. Kurz, W.A. and M.J. Apps. 1996 Retrospective assessment of carbon flows in Canadian boreal forests. In Forest Ecosystems, Forest Management and Global Carbon Cycle. Eds. M J Apps and D T Price pp 173-182. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  54. Kurz W A and Apps M J 1999 A 70-year retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector. Ecol. Appl. 9, 526-547.Google Scholar
  55. Kurz W A, Apps M J, Beukema S J and Lekstrum T, 1995a 20th century carbon budget of Canadian forests. Tellus 47B, 170-177Google Scholar
  56. Kurz W A, Apps M J, Stocks B J and Volney W J 1995b Global climate change: Disturbance regimes and biospheric feedbacks of temperate and boreal forests. In Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System. Eds. G M Woodwell and F T Mackenzie. pp 119-133. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Kurz W A, Beukema S J and Apps M J 1998 Carbon budget implications of the transition from natural to managed disturbance regimes in forest landscapes. Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change 2, 405-421Google Scholar
  58. Labrecque M, Teodorescu T I, Babeux P, Cogliastro A and Daigle S 1994 Impact of herbaceous competition and drainage conditions on the early productivity of willows under short-rotation intensive culture. Can. J. For. Res. 24, 493-501.Google Scholar
  59. Larsen C P S and MacDonald G M 1998 Fire and vegetation dynamics in a jack pine and black spruce forest reconstruction using fossil pollen and charcoal. J. Ecol. 86, 815-828.Google Scholar
  60. Li C and Apps M J 1996 Effects of contagious disturbance on forest temporal dynamics. Ecol. Model. 87, 143-151.Google Scholar
  61. Liski J, Ilvensiemi H, Mäkelä A and Starr M 1998 Model analysis of the effects of soil age, fires and harvesting on the carbon storage of boreal forest soils. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 49, 407-416.Google Scholar
  62. MacLean D A and Wein R W 1978 Litter production and forest floor nutrient dynamics in pine and hardwood stands in new Brunswick, Canada. Holocene Ecol. 1, 1-15.Google Scholar
  63. MacLean D A and Wein RW 1977 Nutrient accumulation for postfire jack pine and hardwood succession patterns in New Brunswick. Can J. For. Res. 7, 562-578.Google Scholar
  64. Matthews E 1997 Global litter production, pools and turnover times: estimates from measurement data and regression models. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18771-18880.Google Scholar
  65. McMurtrie R E and Dewar R 1997 Sustainable forestry: A model of effects of nitrogen removal in wood harvesting and fire on nitrogen balance of regrowth eucalyptus stands. Aust. J. Ecol. 22, 243-255.Google Scholar
  66. Moore T R and Knowles R 1990 Methane emissions from fen, bog, and swamp peatlands in Quebec. Biogeochemistry 11, 45-61.Google Scholar
  67. Moore T R, Trofymow J A, Taylor B, Prescott C, Camire C, Duschene L, Fyles J, Kozak L, Kranabetter M, Morrison I, Siltnen M, Smith S, Titus B, Visser S, Wein R and Zoltai S 1999 Litter decomposition rates in Canadian forests. Global Climate Change 5, 75-82.Google Scholar
  68. Morris L A and Miller R E 1994 Evidence for long-term productivity change as provided by field trials. In Impacts of Forest Harvesting on Long Term Site Productivity. Eds. W J Dyck, D W Cole and N B Comerford. pp 41-80. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Morrison I K 1991 Addition of organic matter and elements to the forest floor of an old-growth Acer saccharum forest in the annual litter fall. Can. J. For. Res. 21, 462-468.Google Scholar
  70. Nadelhoffer K J, Emmett B A, Gundersen P, Kjønaas O J, Koopmans C J, Schlepp P, Tletema A and Wright R F 1999 Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature 398, 145-148.Google Scholar
  71. Nambiar E K S 1996 Sustained productivity of forests is a continuing challenge to soil science. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60, 1629-1642.Google Scholar
  72. Oades J M 1988 The retention of organic matter in soils. Biogeochemistry 5, 35-70.Google Scholar
  73. Olsson B A, Staff H, Lundkvist H, Bengtsson J and Rosén K 1993 Carbon and nitrogen in coniferous forest soils after clear-felling and harvests of different intensity. For. Ecol. Manage. 82, 19-32.Google Scholar
  74. Päätalo, M-A 1998 Factors influencing occurrence and impacts of fires in northern European forests. Silva Fenn. 32, 185-202.Google Scholar
  75. Pare D and Bergeron Y 1995 Above-ground biomass accumulation along a 230-year chronosequence in the southern portion of the Canadian boreal forest. J. Ecol. 83, 1002-1007.Google Scholar
  76. Post W M, Emanuel W R, Zinka P J and Stangenberger G 1982 Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 208, 156-159.Google Scholar
  77. Pastor J and Post W M 1988. Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334: 55-58.Google Scholar
  78. Pastor J, Aber J D, McClaugherty C A and Melillo J M 1984 Above-ground production and N and P cycling along a nitrogen mineralization gradient on blackhawk island Wisconsin. Ecology 65, 256-268.Google Scholar
  79. Peng C H and Apps M J 1998 Simulating carbon dynamics the Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS) in central Canada: 14 2. Sensitivity to climate change. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 12, 393-402.Google Scholar
  80. Peng C H, Apps M J, Price D T, Nalder I A and Halliwell D H 1998 Simulating carbon dynamics along the Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS) in central Canada 1. Model testing. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 12, 381-392.Google Scholar
  81. Pohlman A A and McColl J G 1988 Soluble organics from forest litter and their role in metal dissolution. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52, 265-271.Google Scholar
  82. Prescott C E 1995 Does nitrogen availability control rates of litter decomposition in forests? Plant and Soil. 168, 83-88.Google Scholar
  83. Price D T and Apps M J 1995 The boreal forest transect case study: Global change effects on ecosystem processes and carbon dynamics in boreal Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut. 82, 203-214.Google Scholar
  84. Price D T, Halliwell D H, Apps M J and Peng C H 1999a Adapting a patch model to simulate the sensitivity of Central-Canadian boreal ecosystems to climate variability. J. Biogeogr. 26, 1101-1113.Google Scholar
  85. Price D T, Peng C, Apps M J and Halliwell D H 1999b Simulating effects of climate change on boreal ecosystem carbon pools in central Canada. J. Biogeogr. 26, 1237-1248.Google Scholar
  86. Qualls R G, Haines B L and Swank W T 1991 Fluxes of dissolved organic nutrients and humic substances in a deciduous forest. Ecology 72, 254-266.Google Scholar
  87. Raison R J, Khanna P K and Woods P V 1985 Mechanism of element transfer to the atmosphere during vegetation fires. Can. J. For. Res. 15, 132-140.Google Scholar
  88. Rapalee G, Trumbore S E, Davidson E A, Harden J W and Veldhuis H 1998 Soil carbon stocks and their rate of accumulation and loss in a boreal forest landscape. Global Biogeochem. Cycle 12, 687-701.Google Scholar
  89. Ro C, Vet R, Ord D and Holloway A 1995 Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) Annual summary reports (1983-1994), National Atmospheric Chemistry Data Base (NAtChem), Atmospheric Environment Services, Environment Canada.Google Scholar
  90. Scott N A, Tate K R, Ford-Robertson J, Giltrap D J and Smith C T 1999 Soil carbon storage in plantation forests and pasture: land-use change implications. Tellus 51B, 326-335.Google Scholar
  91. Sellers P J, Hall F G, Kelly R D et al 1997 BOREAS in 1997: Experiment overview, scientific results, and future directions. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28731-28770.Google Scholar
  92. Shannon J D and Sisterson D L 1992 Estimation of S and NOX-N deposition budgets for the United States and Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut. 63, 211-235.Google Scholar
  93. Shugart H H, Lemans R and Bonan G B 1992 A systems analysis of global boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  94. Simpson L G, Botkin D B and Nisbet R A 1993 The potential above-ground carbon storage of North American forests. Water Air Soil Pollut. 70, 197-205.Google Scholar
  95. Taylor B R, Prescott C E, Parsons W J F and Parkinson D 1991 Substrate control of litter decomposition in four Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Can. J. Bot. 69, 2242-2250.Google Scholar
  96. Tarnocai C 1998 The amount of organic carbon in various soil order and ecological provinces in Canada. In Soils and Global Change. Eds. R Lal, J Kimble and B A Stewart. pp 81-92. CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  97. Torn M S, Trumbore S T, Chardwick O A, Vitousek P M and Hendricks D M 1997 Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover. Nature 389, 170-173.Google Scholar
  98. Trumbore S E and Harden J W 1998 Accumulation and turnover of carbon in organic and mineral soils of the BOREAS northern study. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 28817-28830.Google Scholar
  99. Van Cleve K and Moore T A 1978 Cumulative effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer additions on soil respiration, pH and organic matter content. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 121-124.Google Scholar
  100. Van Cleve K, Chapin F S I, Dyrness C T and Viereck L A 1991 Elemental cycling in taiga forests: State factor control. BioScience 41, 78-88.Google Scholar
  101. Van Veen J A and P J Kuikman 1990 Soil structure aspects of decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms. Biogeochemistry 11, 213-233.Google Scholar
  102. Van Wagner C E 1978 Age-class distribution and the forest fire cycle. Can. J. For. Res. 8, 220-227.Google Scholar
  103. Vogt K A, Grier C C and Vogt G J 1986 Production, turnover and nutrient dynamics of above-and belowground detritus of world forests. Adv. Ecol. Res. 15, 303-377.Google Scholar
  104. Vogt K A, Vogt D J, Brown S, Tilley J P, Edmonds R L, Silver W L and Siccama G 1995 Dynamics of forest floor and soil organic matter accumulation in boreal temperate and tropical forests. In Soils and Global Change. Eds. R Lal, J Kimble and B A Stewart. pp 159-179. CRC Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  105. Volney W J A. 1998. Analysis of historic jack pine budworm outbreaks in the Prairie provinces of Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 18: 1152-1158.Google Scholar
  106. Wang G G and Klinka K 1996. Classification of moisture and aeration regimes in sub-boreal forest soils. Environ. Monit. Assess. 39, 451-469.Google Scholar
  107. Weber M G and Stocks B J 1998. Forest fires in the boreal forests of Canada. In Large Forest Fires. Ed. J M Moreno. pp 215-233 Backbuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  108. Weber M G 1987 Decomposition, litterfall and forest floor nutrient dynamics in relation to fire in eastern Ontario jack pine ecosystems. Can. J. For. Res. 17, 1496-1506.Google Scholar
  109. Wessmann C A, Aber J D, Peterson D L and Melillo J M 1988 Remote sensing of canopy chemistry and nitrogen cycling in temperate forest ecosystems. Nature 335, 154-156.Google Scholar
  110. Williams R A, Hoffman B F and Seymour R S 1991 Comparison of site index and biomass production of spruce-fir stands by soil drainage class in Maine. For. Ecol. Manage. 41, 279-290.Google Scholar
  111. Zimov S A, Davidov S P, Zimova G M, Davidova A I, Chapin III F S, Chapin M C and Reynolds J F 1999 Contribution of disturbance to increasing seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2. Science 284, 1973-1976.Google Scholar
  112. Zoltai S, Singh T and Apps M J 1992 Aspen in a changing climate. In AspenManagement for the 21st Century. Eds. S Navratil and P B Chapman. pp 143-152. Proc. of Symposium, Edmonton, Nov. 19-21, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Canadian Forest ServiceNorthern Forestry CentreEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations