Information Technology and Management

, Volume 1, Issue 1–2, pp 45–71 | Cite as

Consumer trust in an Internet store

  • Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa
  • Noam Tractinsky
  • Michael Vitale


The study reported here raises some questions about the conventional wisdom that the Internet creates a “level playing field” for large and small retailers and for retailers with and without an established reputation. In our study, consumers recognized differences in size and reputation among Internet stores, and those differences influenced their assessments of store trustworthiness and their perception of risk, as well as their willingness to patronize the store. After describing our research methods and results, we draw some implications for Internet merchants.


Online Retailer Consumer Trust Travel Site Shopping Task Internet Store 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. Alba, J. Lynch, B. Weitz, C. Janiszewski, R. Lutz, A. Sawyer and S. Wood, Interactive home shopping: consumer, retailer, and manufacturer incentives to participate in electronic marketplaces, Journal of Marketing 61 (July 1997) 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    I. Ajzen, From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior, in: Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior, eds. J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Springer Verlag, 1985) pp. 11–39.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    I. Ajzen, The theory of planned behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50 (1991) 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    I. Ajzen and M. Fishbein, Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior (Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1980).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    J.C. Anderson and A. Narus, A model of distributor firm and manufacturer firm working partnerships, Journal of Marketing 54 (January 1990) 42–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    E. Anderson and E. Weitz, Determinants of continuity in conventional industrial channel dyads, Marketing Science 8 (1989) 310–323.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. Arbuckle, Amos Version 3.6 (SmallWaters Corporation, 1997).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R. Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation (Basic Books, 1984).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. Bagozzi, Attitudes, intentions, and behavior: a test of some key hypotheses, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 41 (October 1981) 607–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    R.P. Bagozzi, H. Baumgartner and Y. Yi, State versus action orientation and the theory of reasoned action: an application of coupon usage, Journal of Consumer Research 18 (March 1992) 505–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    K.A. Bollen, Structural Equations with Latent Variables (Wiley, 1989).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J.L. Bradach and R.G. Eccles, Markets versus hierarchies: from ideal types to plural forms, Annual Review of Sociology 15 (1989) 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. Brockner, P.A. Siegel, J.P. Daly, T. Tyler and C. Martin, When trust matters: the moderating effect of outcome favorability, Administrative Science Quarterly 42 (1997) 558–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    T.H. Chiles and J.F. McMackin, Integrating variable risk preferences, trust, and transaction cost economics, Academy of Management Review 21(1) (1996) 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    W.W. Chin, Issues and opinions on structural equation modeling, MIS Quarterly 22(1) (March 1998), vii–xvi.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Chow and R. Holden, Toward an understanding of loyalty: the moderating role of trust, Journal of Managerial Issues 9(3) (Fall 1997) 275–298.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M.J. Culnan and P.K. Armstrong, Information Privacy Concerns, Procedural Fairness and Impersonal Trust: An Empirical Investigation (Organization Science, 1998), forthcoming.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    W.R. Darden and R.D. Howell, Socialization effects of retail work experience on shopping orientations, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 15(3) (Fall 1987) 52–63.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J.C. Darian, In-home shopping: are there consumer segments?, Journal of Retailing 63(2) (Summer 1987) 163–186.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. Deutch, Trust and suspicion, Journal of Conflict Resolution 2 (1958) 265–279.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    P.M. Doney and J.P. Cannon, An examination of the nature of trust in buyer-seller relationships, Journal of Marketing 61 (April 1997) 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    F.R. Dwyer, P.H. Schurr and S. Oh, Developing buyer-seller relationships, Journal of Marketing 51 (April 1987) 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    M.A. Eastlick, Predictors of videotext adoption, Journal of Direct Marketing 7(3) (Summer 1993) 66–76.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    The economist, survey of electronic commerce, Search of the Perfect Market, May 10th (1997) 3–26.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    R.H. Fazio and M.P. Zanna, Attitudinal qualities relating to the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 14 (1978) 398–408.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research (Addison-Wesley, 1975).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    S. Ganesan, Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer-seller relationships, Journal of Marketing 58(2) (April 1994) 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    J.M. Hawes, K.W. Mast and J.E. Swan, Trust earning perceptions of sellers and buyers, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management 9 (Spring 1989) 1–8.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    F. Heider, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (Wiley, 1958).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    D.L. Hoffman and T.P. Novak, Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: conceptual foundations, Journal of Marketing 60 (July 1996) 50–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    D.L. Hoffman and T.P. Novak, You can't sell if you don't have a market you can count on, Harvard Business Review 74(6) (November-December 1996) 161.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    S.L. Jarvenpaa and P.A. Todd, Consumer reactions to electronic shopping on the World Wide Web, Journal of Electronic Commerce 1(2) (Winter 1997) 59–88.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    C.R. Jasper and R.R. Lan, Apparel catalog patronage: demographic, lifestyle and motivational factors, Psychology and Marketing 9(4) (July-August 1992) 275–296.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    G. John, An empirical investigation of some antecedents of opportunism in a marketing channel, Journal of Marketing Research XXI (August 1984) 278–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    W.J. Johnston and J.E. Lewin, Organizational buying behavior: toward an integrative framework, Journal of Business Research 35 (1996) 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    R. Kalakota and A.B. Whinston, Frontiers of Electronic Commerce (Addison-Wesley, 1996).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    P.G.W. Keen, Are you ready for “Trust” Economy, ComputerWorld 31(16) (April 21 1997) 80.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    P.K. Korgaonkar and G.P. Moschis, Consumer adoption of videotext services, Journal of Direct Marketing 1 (1987) 63–71.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    P.K. Korgaonkar and A.E. Smith, Psychographic and demographic correlates of electronic in-home shopping and banking service, in: 1986 American Marketing Association Proceedings, eds. T.A. Shimp, G. John, J.H. Lingren, M.P. Gardner, S. Sharma, J.A. Quelch, W. Dillon and R.E. Dyer (American Marketing Association, 1986) pp. 167–169.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    R.J. Lewicki and D. McAllister, Trust and distrust: measuring the difference, Unpublished Manuscript, Ohio State University (1998).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    G.L. Lohse and P. Spiller, Electronic shopping, Communications of the ACM 41(7) (July 1998) 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    N. Luhmann, Trust and Power (John Wiley and Sons, 1979).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    G. Macintosh and L.W. Lockshin, Retail relationships and store loyalty: a multi-level perspective, International Journal of Research in Marketing 14(5) (December 1997) 487–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    R.J. Mayer, J.H. Davis and F.D. Schoorman, An integrative model of organizational trust, Academy of Management Review 20 (1995) 709–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    D.J. McAllister, Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations, Academy of Management Journal 38(1) (1995) 24–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    R.M. Morgan and S.D. Hunt, The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing, Journal of Marketing (July 1994) 20–38.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    J. Nunnally, Psychometric Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1967).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    R.A. Peterson, S. Balasubramanian and B.J. Bronnenberg, Exploring the implications of the Internet for consumer marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25(4) (1997) 329–346.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    J.A. Quelch and L.R. Klein, The Internet and international marketing, Sloan Management Review (Spring 1996) 60–75.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    P.S. Ring and A. Van de Ven, Structuring cooperative relationships between organizations, Strategic Management Journal 13 (1992) 483–498.Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    P.H. Schurr and J.L. Ozanne, Influences on exchange processes: buyers' preconceptions of a seller's trustworthiness and bargaining toughness, Journal of Consumer Research 11(4) (1985) 939–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    S. Shim and M.F. Drake, Consumer intention to utilize electronic shopping, Journal of Direct Marketing 4 (Summer 1990) 22–33.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    S. Shim and M. Mahoney, Electronic shoppers and nonshoppers among videotext users, Journal of Direct Marketing (Summer 1991) 29–38.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    S. Shim and M.Y. Mahoney, The elderly mail-order catalog user of fashion products, Journal of Direct Marketing 6(1) (Winter 1992) 49–58.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    S. Sitkin and N.L. Roth, Explaining the limited effectiveness of legalistic “remedies” for trust/distrust, Organization Science 4(3) (1993) 367–392.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    S.B. Sitkin and L.R. Weingart, Determinants of risky decision-making behavior: a test of the mediating role of risk perceptions and propensity, Academy of Management Journal 38(6) (1995) 1573–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    J.B. Smith and D.W. Barclay, The effects of organizational differences and trust on the effectiveness of selling partner relationships, Journal of Marketing 61 (January 1997) 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    P. Spiller and G.L. Lohse, A classification of internet retail stores, International Journal of Electronic Commerce 2(2) (Winter 1997-1998) 29–56.Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    S. Taylor and P. Todd, Understanding information technology usage: a test of competing models, Information Systems Research 6(2) (1995) 144–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    J.W. Thibaut and H.H. Kelley, The Social Psychology of Groups (Wiley, New York, 1959).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    R.L. Thompson, C.A. Higgins and J.M. Howell, Influence of experience on personal computer utilization: testing a conceptual model, Journal of Management Information Systems 11(1) (Summer 1994) 167–187.Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    R.T. Watson, S. Akselsen and L.F. Pitt, Attractors: building mountains in the flat landscape of the World Wide Web, California Management Review 40(2) (Winter 1998) 36–56.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    O.E. Williamson, Markets and Hierarchies (Free Press, 1975).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    L.G. Zucker, Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure, 1840-1920, in: Research in Organizational Behavior, 8, eds. B.M. Staw and L.L. Cummings (JAI Press, 1986) pp. 53–111.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa
    • 1
  • Noam Tractinsky
    • 2
  • Michael Vitale
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management Science and Information Systems, CBA 5.202, B6500University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA E-mail:
  2. 2.Industrial Engineering and ManagementBen‐Gurion UniversityBeer ShevaIsrael
  3. 3.Melbourne Business SchoolThe University of MelbourneCarltonAustralia

Personalised recommendations