Gender Differences in the Structure of Narcissism: A Multi-Sample Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory
Multi-sample analysis of the Emmons factor modelof the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) was usedto test the prediction that exploitive tendencies andfeelings of entitlement are less central to the construct of narcissism among females thanthey are among males. As predicted, the hypothesis ofcross-gender equivalence of the Emmons factorvariance/covariance matrixwas rejected. Follow-upanalyses confirmed thatthis hypothesis was rejectedprimarily because Exploitiveness/Entitlement showedweaker correlations with the other Emmons factors amongfemales that it did among males. Results are discussed in terms of such factors as norms regardingappropriate sex role conduct, as well as the powerdifferential between males and females.
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