Gender discrimination in academia was examined by means of a climate survey at a research university, which asked faculty about their experiences, observations, and satisfaction within their work environment. Overall, responses indicated that most faculty felt satisfied with key aspects of their environment, and many felt they had experienced, or observed, little or no discrimination. However, among those who did report personally experiencing discrimination, there were consistent gender differences across all areas. Specifically, women were more likely than men to report that they had experienced exclusion by colleagues, inappropriate sexual attention from colleagues or administrators, demeaning or intimidating behaviors from students, colleagues, or administrators, and unfair treatment in processes of hiring, reappointment, promotion, or tenure.
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Bronstein, P., Farnsworth, L. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FACULTY EXPERIENCES OF INTERPERSONAL CLIMATE AND PROCESSES FOR ADVANCEMENT. Research in Higher Education 39, 557–585 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018701722855