Skip to main content

Sorghum: a cereal with lager beer brewing potential

Abstract

The potential of sorghum as an alternative substrate for lager beer brewing was recognized over five decades ago. Factors which appear to influence brewing with sorghum include: the variety of sorghum, storage time, steep period, germination time, duration and levels of temperature-time sequence of the kilning cycle and temperature-time regimes during mashing. Malts from sorghum varieties that have high diastatic power, amylase and starch contents are desirable. Soluble and insoluble amylases in grain sorghum contribute towards the hydrolysis of grain constituents during mashing. Optimizing conditions for malting, mashing and fermentation are therefore necessary for the production of acceptable sorghum lager beer. This review aims to update research results on lager beer brewing with sorghum.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Agu, R.C., Okenchi, M.U., Aneke, G. & Onwumelu, A.H. 1995 Brewing properties of Nigerian white and yellow malted sorghum varieties mashed with external enzymes. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 11, 591–592.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aisien, A.O. & Ghosh, B.P. 1978 Preliminary studies of the germination behaviour of guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 29, 850–852.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aisien, A.O. & Palmer, G.H. 1983 The sorghum embryo in relation to the hydrolysis of the endosperm during germination and seedling growth. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture 34, 113–124.

    Google Scholar 

  • Asiedu, J.J. 1992 Sorghum and millet. In Processing Tropical Crops, pp. 189–223. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beta, T., Rooney, L.W. & Waniska, R.D. 1995 Malting characteristics of sorghum cultivars. Cereal Chemistry 72, 533–538.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bajomo, M.F. & Young, T.W. 1992 Development of a mashing profile for the use of microbial enzymes in brewing with raw sorghum (80 percent) and malted barley or sorghum malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 98, 515–523.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boboye, B.E. & Adetuyi, F.C. 1994 Fungal population associated with raw materials and intermediate products of lager beer produced from Nigerian sorghum grains. Journal of Food Science and Technology 31, 148–150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bressani, R. & Mertz, E.T. 1958 Studies on corn proteins IV. Protein and amino acid content of different corn varieties. Cereal Chemistry. 35, 227–235.

    Google Scholar 

  • Briggs, D.E. Hough, J.S. Stevens R. & Young, T.W. 1981 Malting and brewing science, vol. 1. London: Chapman & Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chevassus-Agnes, S., Favier, J.C. & Joseph, A. 1979 Traditional technology and nutritive value of Cameroon sorghum beers. CAH Onarest 2, 83–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dale, C.J., Young, T.W. & Makinde, A. 1989 Extruded sorghum as a brewing raw material. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 95, 157–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Demuyakor, B. & Ohta, Y. 1992 Malt characteristics of Sorghum vulgare varieties from Ghana. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 59, 457–462.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dhamija, S.S. & Singh, D.P. 1978 Adjuncts in brewing bajra and sorghum. Journal of Food Science and Technology 15, 197–201.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dufour, J.P., Melotte, L. & Srebrnik. S. 1992 Sorghum malts for the production of a lager beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 50, 110–119.

    Google Scholar 

  • Etim, M.U. & Etokakpan, O.U. 1992 Sorghum brewing using sweet potato enzymic flour to increase saccharification. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8, 509–511.

    Google Scholar 

  • Etokakpan O.U. 1992 Comparative studies of the degradation of non-starchy polysaccharides by sorghums and barleys during malting. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 58, 129–134.

    Google Scholar 

  • European Brewing Convention 1987 Analytica-EBC, 4th edn. pp. 59–60, 77-78. Zurich: Brauerei-und Getranke-Rundschau.

  • Ezeogu, L.I. & Okolo, B.N. 1995 Effects of air rest periods on malting sorghum response to final warm water steep. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 101, 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • FAO, Rome (Italy) 1995 Sorghum and millets in human nutrition. FAO Food and Nutrition Series No. 27, pp. 16–19.

  • Faparusi, S.I. Olofinboba, M.O. & Ekundayo, J.A. 1973 Microbiology of burukutu beer. Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie 13, 563–568.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hahn, R.R. 1966 Sorghum as a brewing adjunct. Brewers Digest 41, 70–76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hough, J.S. Briggs, D.E. & Stevens, R. 1971 Malting and Brewing Science. London: Chapman & Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoyrup, H.E. 1964 Beer and brewing. In Kirk-Othman Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology, 2nd edn, 3, 298–338.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hudson, J.R., MacWilliam, I.C. & Birtwistle, S.E. 1963 Use of unmalted wheat flour in brewing. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 69, 308–315.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ilori, M.O. & Adewusi, S.R.A. 1991 Effect of ammonia on the malting losses of some improved Nigerian sorghum varieties. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 97, 111–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ingle, R.W., Somai, R.B., Wanjari, S.S., Patil, D.B. & Potdukhe, N.R. 1994 Effect of pre-harvest sprays and seed treatment on seed mycoflora and germination in sorghum. Crop Research 8, 578–581.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jayatissa, P.M. Pathirana, R.A. & Sivayogasundaram, R. 1980 Malting quality of Sri Lankan varieties of sorghum. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 86, 18–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Joustra, S.M. & Field, A. 1978 Technological facts which influence malt quality. Sorghum-bierenheid Silv Kongress, Prague, 20-24 November.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar, L.S., Daudu, M.A., Shetty, H.S. & Malleshi, N.G. 1992 Seed mycoflora and malting characteristics of some sorghum cultivars. Journal of Cereal Science 15, 203–209.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasekan, O.O. 1993 Effect of malt milling energy, sedimentation rate and diastatic power measurement in sorghum selection. Food Chemistry 46, 415–417.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasekan, O.O., Idowu, M.A. & Lasekan, W. 1995 Effect of germination and degree of grind (coarse/fine)on the extract and sugar content of sorghum malts. Food Chemistry 53, 125–128.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liniko, M., Eklund, E. & Enari, T.-M. 1965 Degradation of starch by amylases in beer brewing. In Proceedings of the European Brewing Convention, Stockholm, pp 105–109.

  • Malleshi, N.G. & Desikachar, H.S.R. 1986a Studies on comparative malting characteristics of some tropical cereals and millets. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92, 174–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malleshi, N.G. & Desikachar, H.S.R. 1986b Influence of malting conditions on quality of finger millet malt. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92, 81–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mandl, B. & Wagner, D. 1978 Effect of mashing conditions on the supply of amino acids to yeast. Brauwisssenschaft 31, 213–221.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morrall, P., Boyd, H.K., Taylor, J.R.N. & van Der-Walt, W.H. 1986 Effect of germination time, temperature and moisture on malting of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Journal of the Institute of Brewing 92, 439–445.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nout, M.J.R., & Davies, B.J. 1982 Malting characteristics of finger millet, sorghum and barley. Journal of Institute of Brewing 88, 157–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Novellie, L. 1959 Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies-Determination of amylase in kafficorn malts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 10, 441–449.

    Google Scholar 

  • Novellie, L. 1960 Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies-Occurrence of beta-amylase in kafficorn malts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 11, 408–421.

    Google Scholar 

  • Novellie, L. 1962a Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies XI. Effect of malting conditions on the diastatic power of kafficorn malts. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 13, 115–120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Novellie, L. 1962b Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies XII. Effect of malting conditions on malting losses and total amylases activity. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 13, 121–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Novellie, L. 1962c Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies XIII. Variations of diastatic power with variety, season, maturity and age of grains. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 13, 124–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogbonna, A.C. 1992 Review: Developments in the malting and brewing trials with sorghum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 8, 87–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogbonna, A.C. & Egunwu, A.L. 1994 Beta-glucan degradation in malting sorghum. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10, 595–596.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogbonna, A.C. & Obi, S.K.C. 1992 Use of raphia palm wine yeast strains in sorghum beer brewing Journal of the Institute of Brewing 98, 339–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Okafor, N. 1985 Prospects and challenges of the use of local cereals and starchy substances in brewing. In National Symposium on the brewing industry, Now and the 21st century, Owerri, Nigeria, pp 22–25.

  • Okafor, N. & Aniche, G.N. 1980 Brewing a lager beer from Nigerian sorghum. Brewing and Distilling International 10, 32–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Okoh, P.N., Kubiczek, R.P., Njoku, P.C. & Iyeghe, G.T. 1989 some compositional changes in malted sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) grain and its value in broiler chicken diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 49, 271–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olatunji, O., Jibogun, A.C., Anibaba, T.S., Oliyide, V.P., Ozumba, A.U. & Oniwinde, K.O. 1993 Effect of different mashing procedures on the quality of sorghum beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 51, 67–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama C.I. 1991 Production of burukutu with Saccharomyces cerevisae variants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 35, 21–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama, C.I. & Abdullahi, A.S. 1994 Optimization of conditions for producing sorghum malt. Bioscience Research communications 6, 99–101.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama, C.I. & Asheno, I. 1994 Studies on malting conditions for sorghum. Food Chemistry. 49, 257–260.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama, C.I. & Okafor, N. 1987 Studies on mashing methods for beer brewing with sorghum. MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 3, 243–253.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama, C.I. & Okafor, N. 1990 Use of unmalted sorghum as a brewing adjunct. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 6, 318–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Owuama, C.I. & Okafor, N. 1991 Effect of various days of malting on the quality of lager beer produced from sorghum. Technology and Development 1, 47–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmer, G.H. 1989 Cereals in malting and brewing. In Cereal Science and Technology, ed Palmer, G.H. pp. 161–242 Aberdeen: University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Palmer, G.H., Etokakpan O.U. & Igyor, M.A. 1989 Review: Sorghum as brewing material. MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 5, 265–275.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pathirana, R.A., Shivayogasundaram, K. & Jayatissa, P.M. 1983 Optimization of conditions for malting of sorghum. Journal of Food science and Technology 20, 108–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Purseglove J.W. 1972 Tropical crops, monocotyledons. London: Longmans.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raschke, A.M., Taylor, J. & Taylor, J.R.N. 1995 Use of falling number and rapid visco analyser instruments to estimate sorghum diastatic power. Journal of Cereal Science 21, 97–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratnavathi, C.V. & Ravi, S.B. 1991 Effect of different durations of steeping and malting on the production of alpha-amylase in sorghum. Journal of Cereal Science 14, 287–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rooney, L.A. 1969 Properties of sorghum grain and new developments of possible significance to the brewing industry. Master Brewers Association of the Americas Technical Quarterly 6, 227–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, R. 1976 Tropical lager brewing with sorghum malt. Brewing and Malting International 6, 26–27.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solomon, B.O. Layokun, S.K., Idowu, A.O. & Ilori, M.O. 1994 Prospects for the utilization of the endogenous enzymes in sorghum malt in the hydrolysis of starch: Case study with utilization of breadfruit starch for ethanol production. Food Biotechnology 8, 243–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, E.D. & Hahn, R.H. 1965 Sorghum Brewer's grist in brewing lager beer. American Brewer 7, 21–26.

    Google Scholar 

  • Subramanian, V., Rao, N.S., Jambunathan, R., Murthy, D.S. & Reddy, B.V.S. 1995 The effect of mashing on the extractability of proteins and its relationship to diastatic activity in sorghum. Journal of Cereal Science 21, 283–289.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanston, J.S., Rao, N.S., Subramanian, V. & Taylor, K. 1994 The influence of some aspects of grain quality on malting potential in sorghum. Journal of Cereal Science 19, 91–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, J.R.N. & Boyd, H.K. 1986 Free alpha-amino nitrogen production in sorghum beer mashing. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 37, 1109–1117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, J.R.N. & Dewar, J. 1994 Role of alpha-glucosidase in the fermentable sugar composition of sorghum malt mashes. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 100, 417–419.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wainwright, T. 1971 Biochemistry of brewing. In Modern Brewing Technology, ed Findlay, W.P.K. pp. 121–163. London: The Macmillan Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Owuama, C. Sorghum: a cereal with lager beer brewing potential. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13, 253–260 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018566503879

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018566503879

  • Beer
  • brewing
  • malting
  • mashing
  • sorghum