Integrated Pest Management Reviews

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 51–59 | Cite as

Biological control of pigweeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, L. A. Powellii, S. Watson and A. bouchonii Thell.) with phytophagous insects, fungal pathogens and crop management

  • H.M. BURKI
  • L. CAGAN
  • H.U. AMMON


Pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.) are of economic importance worldwide. In Europe, Amaranthus retroflexus is one of the ten weed species of greatest economic importance. It is a serious problem weed in several field crops (e.g. maize), as well as in vegetables, orchards and grape vines. It is an annual spreading by seeds which have a long viabilityand are dispersed principally by wind and water, but also by machinery. There is great variability in seed germination which renders control with post-emergence herbicides difficult. In addition, triazine herbicide-resistant populations occur in ten European countries. The aim of this subproject of COST action 816 is to investigate the possibilities of classical and inundative biological control of Amaranthus spp., to characterize potentialbiological control agents and to develop methods for their integration with current phytosanitary measures in the target crops. The project was initiated with an extended literaturesurvey followed by field surveys for insects and pathogens associated with Amaranthus spp. in several European countries. Promising isolates of fungal pathogens have been tested ondetached leaves and whole plants, and initial studies on the application of pathogens causing damping off in seedlings have been made. Further, the variability of different provenances ofAmaranthus spp. in response to fungal attack has been investigated

Biological control insects pathogens germination taxonomy genetic variability 


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Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.M. BURKI
    • 1
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. CAGAN
    • 3
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
  • H.U. AMMON
    • 8
  1. 1.International Institute of Biological ControlDelemontSwitzerland
  2. 2.IACR-Long Ashton Research StationUniversity of BristolLong Ashton BristolUK
  3. 3.Department of Plant ProtectionUniversity of AgricultureNitraSlovakia
  4. 4.Faculte des SciencesUniversite Libre de BruxellesBruxellesBelgium
  5. 5.Plant Protection Research InstituteHASBudapestHungary
  6. 6.University of AberdeenUK
  7. 7.Institute for Integrated Plant ProtectionFederal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA)KleinmachnowGermany
  8. 8.Institute of Plant SciencesSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyZurichSwitzerland

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