Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 904–912 | Cite as

Testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in relation to prenatal factors: case-control studies in Denmark

  • Henrik Møller
  • Niels E. Skakkeb\sgmaelig;k
Article

Abstract

To explore prenatal risk factors that are common to testicular cancer and cryptorchidism, two parallel case-control studies were conducted in Denmark. Information about characteristics of the mother, the pregnancy, and the birth were obtained from the mothers of cases and controls, using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. A maternal age above 30 years was associated with odds ratios (OR) of 1.9 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]= 1.2-3.0) for cryptorchidism and 2.0 (CI = 1.2-3.6) for testicular seminoma; the latter effect was particularly high when the boy was the first child of the mother (OR = 4.1, CI = 1.1-14.6). Birth weights below 3,000 g or above4,000 g were associated with increased risks of testicular cancer, with OR sup to 2.6 (CI = 1.1-5.9) for birth weight below 2,500 g. For cryptorchidism, there was a monotonous trend in the OR from 0.4 in birth weights above 4,500 g to 2.3 in birth weights below 2,500 g. The association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was not attenuated by adjustment for maternal age and birthweight, indicating that all three variables are independent risk factors for testicular cancer. With the exception of high maternal age, which consistently is associated more strongly with seminoma than withnon-seminoma, it remains most likely that seminoma and non-seminoma have similar causes.

Cryptorchidism Denmark men testicular neoplasms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Strader CH, Weiss NS, Daling JR, Karagas MR, McKnight B. Cryptorchism, orchiopexy, and the risk of testicular cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 127: 1013–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Kingdom Testicular Cancer Study Group. Aetiology of testicular cancer: association with congenital abnormalities, age at puberty, infertility, and exercise. Br Med J 1994; 308: 1393–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gallagher RP, Huchcroft S, Phillips N, et al. Physical activity, medical history, and risk of testicular cancer (Alberta and British Columbia, Canada). Cancer Causes Control 1995; 66: 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Møller H, Prener A, Skakkebæk NE. Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, testicular atrophy, and genital malformations: case-control studies in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control 1995; 7: 264–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Møller H. Clues to the aetiology of testicular germ cell tumours from descriptive epidemiology. Eur Urol 1993; 23: 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Møller H.Work in agriculture, childhood residence, nitrate exposure and testicular cancer risk: case-control study in Denmark. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 1997; 6: 141–4.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Skakkebæk NE, Berthelsen JG, Giwercman A, Müller J. Carcinoma-in-situ of the testis: possible origin from gonocytes and precursor of all types of germ cell tumours except spermatocytoma. Int J Androl 1987; 10: 19–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Henderson BE, Benton B, Jing J, Yu MC, Pike MC. Risk factors for cancer of the testis in young men. Int J Cancer 1979; 23: 598–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Depue RH, Pike MC, Henderson BE. Estrogen exposure during gestation and risk of testicular cancer. JNCI 1983; 71: 1151–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown LM, Pottern LM, Hoover RN. Prenatal and peri-natal risk factors for testicular cancer. Cancer Res 1986; 46: 4812–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Swerdlow AJ, Huttly SR, Smith PG. Prenatal and familial associations of testicular cancer. Br J Cancer 1987; 55: 571–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akre O, Ekbom A, Hsieh C-c, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO. Testicular nonseminoma and seminoma in relation to perinatal characteristics. JNCI 1996; 88: 883–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prener A, Hsieh C-c, Engholm G, Trichopoulos D, Jensen OM. Birth order and risk of testicular cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1992; 3: 265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gershman ST, Stolley PD. A case-control study of testicular cancer using Connecticut tumour registry data. Int J Epidemiol 1988; 17: 738–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coscrove MD, Benton B, Henderson BE. Male genitourinary abnormalities and maternal diethylstilbestrol. J Urol 1977; 117: 220–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Depue RH. Maternal and gestational factors affecting the risk of cryptorchidism and inguinal hernia. Int J Epidemiol 1984; 13: 311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Depue RH. Cryptorchidism, an epidemiologic study with emphasis on the relationship to central nervous system dysfunction. Teratology 1988; 37: 301–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bernstein L, Pike MC, Depue RH, Ross RK, Moore JW, Henderson BE. Maternal hormone levels in early gestation of cryptorchid males: a case-control study. Br J Cancer1988; 58: 379–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berkowitz GS, Lapinsky RH, Godbold JH, Dolgin SE, Holzman IR. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for cryptorchidism. Epidemiology 1995; 6: 127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beard CM, Melton LJ, O'Fallon WM, Noller KL, Benson RC. Cryptorchism and maternal estrogen exposure. Am J Epidemiol1984; 120: 707–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davies TW, Williams DR, Whitaker RH. Risk factors for undescended testis. Int J Epidemiol 1986; 15: 197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bjøro K, Dybvik T. Testicular retention. Age at diagnosis and surgical correction at a county hospital. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1984; 104: 14–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Swerdlow AJ, Wood KH, Smith PG. A case-control study of the aetiology of cryptorchidism. J Epidemiol Community Health 1983; 37: 238–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morley R, Lucas A. Undescended testes in low birthweight infants. Br Med J 1987; 295: 753.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group. Cryptorchidism: a prospective study of 7500 consecutive male births, 1984-8. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67: 892–9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jackson MB. The epidemiology of cryptorchidism. John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Research Group. Horm Res 1988; 30: 153–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hjertkvist M, Damber JE, Bergh A. Cryptorchidism: a registry based study in Sweden on some factors of possible aetiological importance. J Epidemiol Community Health 1989; 43: 324–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sharpe RM, Skakkebæk NE. Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet 1993; 341: 1392–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Møller H, Skakkebæk NE. Risks of testicular cancer and cryptorchidism in relation to socio-economic status and related factors: case-control studies in Denmark. Int J Cancer 1996; 66: 287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Storm HH. The Danish Cancer Registry, a Self-reporting National Cancer Registration System with Elements of Active Data Collection. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1991; IARC Sci Pub. No. 95: 220–36.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Giwercman A, Grindsted J, Hansen B, Jensen OM, Skakkebæk NE. Testicular cancer risk in boys with mal-descended testis: a cohort study. J Urol 1987; 138: 1214–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Giwercman A, Bruun E, Frimodt-Møller C, Skakkebæk NE. Prevalence of carcinoma in situ and other histopathological abnormalities in testes of men with a history of cryptorchidism. J Urol 1989; 142: 998–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Volume I. The Analysis of Case-control Studies. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1980; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 32: 5–338.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Daling JR, Starzyk P, Olshan AF, Weiss NS. Birth weight and the incidence of childhood cancer. JNCI 1984, 72: 1039–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trichopoulos D, Cole P, Brown JB, Goldman MB, MacMahon B. Estrogen profiles of primiparous and nulliparous women in Athens, Greece. JNCI 1980; 65: 43–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bernstein L, Pike MC, Ross RK, Judd HL, Brown JB, Henderson BE. Estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in nulliparous and parous women. JNCI 1985; 74: 741–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bernstein L, Depue RH, Ross RK, Judd HL, Pike MC, Henderson BE. Higher maternal levels of free estradiol in first compared to second pregnancy: early gestational differences. JNCI 1986; 76: 1035–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Panagiotopoulou K, Katsouyanni K, Petridou E, Garas Y, Tzonou A, Trichopoulos D. Maternal age, parity, and pregnancy estrogens. Cancer Causes Control 1990; 1: 119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Braun DL, Green MD, Rausen AR, et al. Down's syndrome and testicular cancer: a possible association. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1985; 7: 208–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    St. John JC, Cooke ID, Barratt CLR. Mitochondrial mutations and male infertility. Nature Med 1997; 3: 124–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morrison AS. Cryptorchidism, hernia, and cancer of the testis. JNCI 1976; 56: 731–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coldman AJ, Elwood JM, Gallagher RP. Sports activities and risk of testicular cancer. Br J Cancer 1982; 46: 749–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Swerdlow AJ, Huttly SR, Smith PG. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases. Br J Cancer 1987; 55: 97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parkin DM, Muir CS, Whelan SL, Gao YT, Ferlay J, Powell J. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Volume VI. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1992; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 120: 972–3.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coleman MP, Esteve J, Damiecki P, Arslan A, Renard H. Trends in Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1993; IARC Sci. Pub. No. 121: 521–42.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Forman D, Møller H. Trends in incidence and mortality of testicular cancer. Cancer Surv 1994; 19/20: 323–41.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bergstrom R, Adami HO, Mohner M, et al. Increase in testicular cancer in six European countries: a birth cohort phenomenon. JNCI 1996; 88: 727–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wanderås EH, Tretli S, Fosså SD. Trends in incidence of testicular cancer in Norway 1955-1992. Eur J Cancer; 31A: 2044–8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Henrik Møller
    • 1
  • Niels E. Skakkeb\sgmaelig;k
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Research in Health & Social StatisticsThe Danish National Research FoundationCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Growth and ReproductionNational University HospitalCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations