Advertisement

Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 21, Issue 6–7, pp 405–414 | Cite as

Powdery mildew (Ascomycotina: Erysiphales) — an alternative food for the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

  • R. Zemek
  • E. Prenerov
Article

Abstract

The ability of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten to feed on powdery mildew was investigated. Adult females of T. pyri which had previously been fed on the pollen of Pinus sylvestris L. were offered three powdery mildew species and their feeding behaviour was observed. The females fed readily on the conidia of Erysiphe orontii Cast. from tobacco and Oidium fragariae Harz. from strawberry while no feeding was observed on Erysiphe polygoni DC. from red clover, even after the mites were starved for 2 days. Erysiphe orontii was tested for its effect on the survival, oviposition and development of T. pyri. The results showed that the conidia of E. orontii can supply mites with the water and nutrients necessary for their normal development. Mature females successfully mated and reproduced, although their oviposition rate was low.

Acari Phytoseiidae Typhlodromus pyri alternative food fungi Erysiphales 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Bakker, F.M. 1993. Selecting phytoseiid predators for biological control, with emphasis on the significance of tri-trophic interactions. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  2. Bakker, F.M. and Klein, M.E. 1992. Transtrophic interactions in cassava. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 14: 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Birch, L.C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J. Animal, Ecol. 17: 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borland 1993. Quattro Pro for Windows ver. 5.0: User's Guide. Borland International, Inc., Scotts Valley, CA.Google Scholar
  5. Chant, D.A. 1959. Phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Part I. Bionomics of seven species in southeastern England. Can. Entomol. 91,Suppl. 12: 5–44.Google Scholar
  6. Dicke, M., Sabelis, M.W. and de Jong, M. 1988. Analysis of prey preference in phytoseiid mites by using an olfactometer, predation models and electrophoresis. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 5(3–4): 225–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Efron, B. 1982. The Jackknife, the Bootstrap and Other Resampling Plans. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  8. Eichhorn, K.W. and Hoos, D. 1990. Investigations in population dynamics of Typhlodromus pyri in vineyards of Palatina, F.R. Germany. In Integrated control in viticulture; Proc. meeting at Sion, A. Schmid (ed.), pp.120–123. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin.Google Scholar
  9. Hardman, J.M. and Rogers, M.L. 1991. Effect of temperature and prey density on survival, development, and feeding rates of immature Typhlodromus pyri (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Environ. Entomol. 20(4): 1089–1096.Google Scholar
  10. Herbert, H.J. 1962. Overwintering females and the number of generations of Typhlodromus (T.) pyri (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in Nova Scotia. Can. Entomol. 94: 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz D. 1971. Studies on the feeding of four species of phytoseiid mites (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). In Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Acarology, M. Daniel and B. Rosický (eds), pp. 225–227. Academia, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague.Google Scholar
  12. Lotka, A.J. 1924. Elements of Physical Biology. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  13. McMurtry, J.A. 1992. Dynamics and potential impact of ‘generalist’ phytoseiids in agroecosystems and possibilities for establishment of exotic species. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 14(3–4): 371–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McMurtry, J.A. and Rodriguez, J.G. 1987. Nutritional ecology of phytoseiid mites. In Nutritional ecology of insects, mites and spiders, F.J. Slansky and J.G. Rodriguez (eds), pp. 609–644. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  15. Meyer, J.S., Ingersoll, C.G., McDonald, L.L. and Boyce, M.S. 1986. Estimating uncertainty in population growth rates: jackknife vs. bootstrap techniques. Ecology 67: 1156–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Overmeer, W.P.J. 1981. Notes on breeding phytoseiid mites from orchards (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in the laboratory. Med. Fac. Landbouww. Rijksuniv. Ghent 46(2): 503–509.Google Scholar
  17. Overmeer, W.P.J. 1985. Alternative prey and other food resources. In Spider mites, their biology, natural enemies and control, Vol. 1B, W. Helle and M.W. Sabelis (eds), pp. 131–137. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  18. Siler, W. 1979. A competing-risk model for animal mortality. Ecology 60: 750–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Walde, S.J., Nyrop, J.P. and Hardman J.M. 1992. Dynamics of Panonychus ulmi and Typhlodromus pyri: factors contributing to persistence. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 14: 261–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weibull, W. 1951. A statistical distribution function of wide applicability. J. App. Mech. 18: 293–297.Google Scholar
  21. Zacharda, M. 1991. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a unique predator for biological control of phytophagous mites in Czechoslovakia. In Modern acarology, Vol. 2, F. Dusbábek and V. Bukva (eds), pp. 205–210. Academia and SPB Academic Publishing BV., Prague, The Hague.Google Scholar
  22. Zaher, M.A. and Shehata, K.K. 1971. Biological studies on the predator mite Typhlodromus pyri Sch. (Acarina Phytoseiidae) with the effect of prey and non prey substances. Z. Angew. Entomol. 64: 389–394.Google Scholar
  23. Zemek, R. 1993a. Characteristics of development and reproduction in Typhlodromus pyri on Tetranychus urticae and Cecidophyopsis ribis. I. Overwintered females. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 17: 405–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zemek, R. 1993b. Characteristics of development and reproduction in Typhlodromus pyri on Tetranychus urticae and Cecidophyopsis ribis. II. Progeny of overwintered females. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 17: 847–858.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Zemek
    • 1
  • E. Prenerov
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of EntomologyCšeske´ BudešjoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Laboratory of Plant Tissue Cultures, Sškolky Olesšna´BernaticeCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations