Flower and fruit characters in a kiwifruit hermaphrodite
The dioecious genus Actinidia includes the kiwifruit, A. deliciosa. Currently, the kiwifruit industry is based predominantly on a single female cultivar, 'Hayward', with up to 13% of the orchard canopy in commercial blocks in New Zealand consisting of unfruitful males vines, necessary as pollinizers. The development of hermaphrodite cultivars became a possibility with the identification of inconstant males, which carry a mixture of staminate flowers and bisexual flowers, the latter developing into small fruits containing seeds. This paper describes a hermaphrodite vine, obtained as a rare variant among the progeny from a cross between 'Hayward' and an inconstant (fruiting) male. Testing of pollen from all flowers in one season and measurement of fruit characters after self-setting demonstrated this seedling is completely hermaphroditic, carrying only bisexual flowers, with no restriction on selfing. Although it does not have commercial potential, it will be used as a parent. Perceived benefits from the development of hermaphrodite cultivars include increased productivity, improved pollination, simplified vine management and therefore substantial cost savings.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Chevalier, A., 1941. Un Actinidiaà fruits comestibles intéressant pour la France (A. chinensisPlanch. var. deliciosaChev.). Rev Int Bot Appl Agric Trop 21: 240-244.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, A.R., 1984. Kiwifruit: a botanical review. Hortic Rev 6: 1-64.Google Scholar
- McNeilage, M.A., 1991a. Gender variation in Actinidia deliciosa, the kiwifruit. Sex Plant Reprod 4: 267-273.Google Scholar
- McNeilage, M.A., 1991b. Sex expression in fruiting male vines of kiwifruit. Sex Plant Reprod 4: 274-278.Google Scholar
- McNeilage, M.A., A.G. Seal, S. Steinhagen & J. McGowan, 1992. Evaluation of kiwifruit pollinizers. Acta Hortic 297: 277-282.Google Scholar
- Rizet, G., 1945. Contribution a l'étude biologique et cytologique de l'Actinidia chinensis. CR Séances Soc Biol Paris 139: 140-142.Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc., 1988. SAS/STAT® User's Guide, Release 6.03 Edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.Google Scholar
- Schmid, R., 1978. Reproductive anatomy of Actinidia chinensis(Actinidiaceae). Bot Jahrb Syst Pflanzengesch Pflanzengeogr 100: 149-195.Google Scholar
- White, J., 1990. Pollen development in Actinidia deliciosavar. deliciosa: histochemistry of the microspore mother cell walls. Ann Bot 65: 231-239.Google Scholar