Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 10, Issue 7, pp 1141–1169 | Cite as

A literature review of insect responses to fire, compared to other conservation managements of open habitat

  • Ann B. Swengel
Article

Abstract

This literature review concerns insect responses to fire, compared to other feasible and appropriate conservation managements of open habitats. Many insect groups decline markedly immediately after fire, with the magnitude of reduction related to the degree of exposure to the flames and mobility of the insect. Niche diversity is lower in recently burned habitat, and the rate of insect increase following fire also relates to the species' ability to gain access to the regrowing vegetation. Postburn flora can be quite attractive to some recolonizing insects, possibly to some degree a result of fire-caused insect mortality which provides plants with short-term release from insect herbivory. Insect declines may follow immediately after mowing, but usually of lesser degree and shorter duration than after a fire of comparable timing and size. Season and scale of cutting may affect how much and which species showed positive or negative responses. Cut areas offer the vegetational structure and composition preferred by some insects, but cutting – or cutting at certain scales, seasons, or frequencies – may also be unfavorable for some species. Heavy grazing results in niche and assemblage simplification. Nonetheless, some invertebrates prefer the short turfs and bare ground resulting from heavier grazing. Other species vary in whether they peak in abundance and diversity in intermediate, light, or no grazing. In comparisons of mowing/haying and grazing regimes of similar compatibility with maintenance of the same habitat types, responses of particular species and species groups varied as to whether they had a preference for one or the other. Characteristics associated with insect responses to fire related to the degree of exposure to lethal temperature and stress experienced in the post-fire environment, suitability of post-treatment vegetation as habitat, and ability to rebuild numbers in the site (from survivors and/or colonizers). These factors appear equally useful for explicating insect responses to other managements such as haying, mowing, and grazing. By contrast, the assumption that the most habitat-restricted species will be most adapted to ecological forces believed to be prevalent in that ecosystem appears less efficacious for predicting insect management preferences.

barrens burning grassland grazing haying mowing savanna wildfire 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen AN (1991) Responses of ground-foraging ant communities to three experimental fire regimes in a savanna forest of tropical Australia. Biotropica 23: 575-585Google Scholar
  2. Anderson RC (1982) An evolutionary model summarizing the roles of fire, climate, and grazing animals in the origin and maintenance of grasslands: an end paper. In: Estes JR,Tyrl RJ andBrunken JN (eds) Grasses and Grasslands: Systematics and Ecology, pp 297-308. University of Oklahoma Press, NormanGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson RC,Leahy T andDhillion S (1989) Numbers and biomass of selected insect groups on burned and unburned sand prairie. American Midland Naturalist 122: 151-162Google Scholar
  4. Baines M,Hambler C,Johnson PJ,Macdonald DW andSmith H (1998) The effects of arable field margin management on the abundance and species richness of Araneae (spiders). Ecography 21: 74-86Google Scholar
  5. Ballard HE andGreenlee S (1994) Monitoring Responses of Orthopteran Populations to Fire Management in Missouri Natural Areas: Baseline Data and Initial Analyses. The Nature Conservancy, MissouriGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergeron Y,Richard PJH,Carcaillet C,Gauthier S,Flannigan M andPrairie YT (1998) Variability in fire frequency and forest composition in Canada' southeastern boreal forest: a challenge for sustainable forest management. Conservation Ecology (online) 2(2), 11 pp [http://www.consecol.org/vol2/iss2/art6]Google Scholar
  7. Biondini ME,Steuter AA andHamilton RG (1999) Bison use of fire-managed remnant prairies. Journal of Wildlife Management 52: 454-461Google Scholar
  8. Blocker HD (1973) Rangeland invertebrate studies: a review and a look at the future. In: Hulbert LC (ed) Third Midwest Prairie Conference Proceedings, pp 88-91. Kansas State University, ManhattanGoogle Scholar
  9. Bock CD andBock JH (1991) Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. American Midland Naturalist 125: 162-167Google Scholar
  10. Borgerding EA,Bartelt GA andMcCown WM (1995) The Future of Pine Barrens in NorthwestWisconsin: a workshop summary, PUBL-RS-913-94. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  11. Borror DJ andWhite RE (1970) A Field Guide to Insects: America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., BostonGoogle Scholar
  12. Borth RJ andBarina TS (1991) Observations of Amorpha-feeding Catocala (Noctuidae) in Wisconsin. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 45: 371-373Google Scholar
  13. Brown JW (1993) Thorne' Hairstreak, Mitoura thornei Brown. In: New TR (ed) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), pp 122-123. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  14. Buffington JD (1967) Soil arthropod populations of the New Jersey pine barrens as affected by fire. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60: 530-535Google Scholar
  15. Bulan CA andBarrett GW (1971) The effects of two acute stresses on the arthropod component of an experimental grassland ecosystem. Ecology 52: 597-605Google Scholar
  16. Butterflies Under Threat Team (1986) No. 17. The Management of Chalk Grassland for Butterflies. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  17. Cancelado R andYonke TR (1970) Effect of prairie burning on insect populations. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43: 274-281Google Scholar
  18. Cary SJ (1994) Gray Ranch: fire and butterflies in southwestern New Mexico. Holarctic Lepidoptera 1: 65-68Google Scholar
  19. Chambers BQ andSamways MJ (1998) Grasshopper response to a 40-year experimental burning and mowing regime, with recommendations for invertebrate conservation management. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 985-1012Google Scholar
  20. Cully JF Jr. (1999) Lone star tick abundance, fire, and bison grazing in tall-grass prairie. Journal of Range Management 52: 139-144Google Scholar
  21. Cumming SG,Burton PJ andKlinkenberg B (1996) Boreal mixedwood forests may have no 'representative' areas: some implications for reserve design. Ecography 19: 162-180Google Scholar
  22. Curtis JT (1959) The vegetation ofWisconsin: an ordination of plant communities. University ofWisconsin Press, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  23. Dana RP (1991) Conservation management of the prairie skippers Hesperia dacotae and Hesperia ottoe: basic biology and threat of mortality during prescribed burning in spring. Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin no. 594-1991, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  24. Daubenmire R (1968) Ecology of fire in grasslands. Advances in Ecological Research 5: 209-266Google Scholar
  25. Dennis RLH andEales HT (1997) Patch occupancy in Coenonympha tullia (Müller, 1764) (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae): habitat quality matters as much as patch size and isolation. Journal of Insect Conservation 1: 167-176Google Scholar
  26. Dennis P,Young MR andGorgon IJ (1998) Distribution and abundance of small insects and arachnids in relation to structural heterogeneity of grazed, indigenous grasslands. Ecological Entomology 23: 253-264Google Scholar
  27. Descimon HA (1993) Le Faux-Cuivre smaragdin, Tomares ballus F. In: New TR (ed) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), pp 95-96. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  28. Deyrup M (1996) Two new grasshoppers from relict uplands of Florida (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 122: 199-211Google Scholar
  29. Dietrich CH,Harper MG,Larimore RL andTessene PA (1998) Insects and fire: too much of a good thing? Illinois Natural History Survey Reports 349: 4Google Scholar
  30. Ditlhogo MKM,James R,Laurence BR andSutherland WJ (1992) The effects of conservation management of reed beds. I. The invertebrates. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 265-276Google Scholar
  31. Dunwiddie PW (1991) Comparisons of aboveground arthropods in burned, mowed and untreated sites in sandplain grasslands on Nantucket Island. American Midland Naturalist 125: 206-212Google Scholar
  32. Emmel TC andDaniels JC (1997) Is Schaus' swallowtail finally licked? American Butterflies 5(2): 20-26Google Scholar
  33. Emmel TC andMinno MC (1993) Bartram' Hairstreak, Strymon acis bartrami (Comstock & Huntington). In: New TR (ed) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), pp 126-127. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  34. Erhardt A (1995) Ecology and conservation of alpine Lepidoptera. In: Pullin AS (ed) Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies, pp 258-276. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Evans EW (1984) Fire as a natural disturbance to grasshopper assemblages of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 43: 9-16Google Scholar
  36. Evans EW (1988) Grasshopper (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) assemblages of tallgrass prairie: influences of fire frequency, topography, and vegetation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1495-1501Google Scholar
  37. Evans EW,Rogers RA andOpfermann DJ (1983) Sampling grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on burned and unburned tallgrass prairie: night trapping vs. sweeping. Environmental Entomology 12: 1449-1454Google Scholar
  38. Fay PA andSamenus RJ Jr. (1993) Gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) mortality in a spring tallgrass prairie fire. Environmental Entomology 22: 1333-1337Google Scholar
  39. Feber RE andSmith H (1995) Butterfly conservation on arable farmland. In: Pullin AS (ed) Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies, pp 84-97. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Feber RE,Smith H andMacDonald DW (1996) The effects on butterfly abundance of the management of uncropped edges of arable fields. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 1191-1205Google Scholar
  41. Fellows DP andNewton WE (1999) Prescribed fire effects on biological control of leafy spurge. Journal of Range Management 52: 489-493Google Scholar
  42. Force DC (1981) Postfire insect succession in southern California chaparral. American Naturalist 117: 575-582Google Scholar
  43. Frank DA,McNaughton SJ andTracy BF (1998) The ecology of the earth' grazing ecosystems. Bio-Science 48: 513-521Google Scholar
  44. Frost PGH (1984) The responses and survival of organisms in fire-prone environments. In: Booysen P deV andTainton NM (eds) Ecological Effects of Fire in South African Ecosystems, pp 274-309. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  45. Fry R andLonsdale D (1991) Habitat Conservation for Insects-a neglected green issue. The Amateur Entomologists' Society, MiddlesexGoogle Scholar
  46. Galley KEM andFlowers RW (1998) Rediscovery of a springtail and a grasshopper in Florida. Florida Entomologist 81: 544-546Google Scholar
  47. Gardner SM andUsher MB (1989) Insect abundance on burned and cut upland Calluna heath. The Entomologist 108: 147-157Google Scholar
  48. Gervais BR andShapiro AM (1999) Distribution of edaphic-endemic butterflies in the Sierra Nevada of California. Global Ecology and Biogeography 8: 151-162Google Scholar
  49. Gibson CWD,Hambler C andBrown VK (1992) Change in spider (Araneae) assemblages in relation to succession and grazing management. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 132-142Google Scholar
  50. Gimingham CH (1985) Age-related interactions between Calluna vulgaris and phytophagous insects. Oikos 44: 12-16Google Scholar
  51. Goldstein PZ (1999) Functional ecosystems and biodiversity buzzwords. Conservation Biology 13: 247-255Google Scholar
  52. Greenslade P (1993) Australian Native Steppe-type Landscapes: neglected areas for invertebrate conservation in Australia. In: Gaston KJ,New TR andSamways MJ (eds) Perspectives on Insect Conservation, pp 51-73. Intercept Ltd, Andover, UKGoogle Scholar
  53. Grigore MT andTramer EJ (1996) The short-term effect of fire on Lupinus perennis (L.). Natural Areas Journal 16: 41-48Google Scholar
  54. Grumbine RE (1994) What is ecosystem management? Conservation Biology 8: 27-38Google Scholar
  55. Hamilton KGA (1995) Evaluation of Leafhoppers and their Relatives (Insecta: Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) as Indicators of Prairie Preserve Quality. In: Hartnett DC (ed) Proceedings of the 14th North American Prairie Conference, pp 211-226. Kansas State University, ManhattanGoogle Scholar
  56. Hansen JD (1986) Comparison of insects from burned and unburned areas after a range fire. Great Basin Naturalist 46: 721-727Google Scholar
  57. Hardwick DF (1958) Taxonomy, life history, and habits of the elliptoid-eyed species of Schinia, with notes on the Heliothidinae. Canadian Entomologist 90(suppl 6), 116 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Hardwick DF (1996) A Monograph to the North American Heliothentinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), OttawaGoogle Scholar
  59. Harrington J (1998) Letter to the editor. Restoration & Management Notes 16: 5-6Google Scholar
  60. Haysom KA andCoulson JC (1998) The Lepidoptera fauna associated with Calluna vulgaris: effects of plant architecture on abundance and diversity. Ecological Entomology 23: 377-385Google Scholar
  61. Henderson RA (1981) The response of forb species to seasonal timing of prescribed burns in remnant Wisconsin prairie. MS thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 145 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Henderson RA (1998) Letter to the editor. Restoration & Management Notes 16: 6-7Google Scholar
  63. Hessel SA (1954) A guide to collecting the plant-boring larvae of the genus Papaipema (Noctuidae). Lepidopterists' News 8: 57-63Google Scholar
  64. Holliday NJ (1991) Species responses of carabid beetles during post-fire regeneration of boreal forest. Canadian Entomologist 123: 1379-1389Google Scholar
  65. Holliday NJ (1992) The carabid fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) during post-fire regeneration of boreal forest: properties and dynamics of species assemblages. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 440-452Google Scholar
  66. Howe HF (1994) Managing species diversity in tallgrass prairie: assumptions and implications. Conservation Biology 8: 691-704Google Scholar
  67. Hutchinson KJ andKing KL (1980) The effects of sheep stocking level on invertebrate abundance, biomass and energy utilization in a temperate, sown grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 369-387Google Scholar
  68. Johnson SR (1995) Spider communities in the canopies of annually burned and long-term unburned Spartina pectinata wetlands. Environmental Entomology 24: 832-834Google Scholar
  69. King KL andHutchinson KJ (1976) The effects of sheep stocking intensity on the abundance and distribution of mesofauna in pastures. Journal of Applied Ecology 13: 41-56Google Scholar
  70. King KL,Hutchinson KJ andGreenslade P (1976) The effects of sheep numbers on associations of Collembola in sown pastures. Journal of Applied Ecology 13: 731-739Google Scholar
  71. Kirby P (1992) Habitat Management for Invertebrates: a practical handbook. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, SandyGoogle Scholar
  72. Knutson RL,Kwilosz JR andGrundel R (1999) Movement patterns and population characteristics of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Natural Areas Journal 19: 109-120Google Scholar
  73. Krementz DG andChristie JS (1999) Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannas. Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 803-814Google Scholar
  74. Kwilosz JR andKnutson RL (1999) Prescribed fire management of Karner blue butterfly habitat at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Natural Areas Journal 19: 98-108Google Scholar
  75. Lamotte M (1975) The structure and function of a tropical savanna ecosystem. In: Golley FB andMedina E (eds) Tropical Ecological Systems: Trends in Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, pp 179-222. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  76. Leach MK andGivnish TJ (1999) Gradients in the composition, structure, and diversity of remnant oak savannas in southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 69: 353-374Google Scholar
  77. Leiby RW (1922) Biology of the goldenrod gall-maker Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis Riley. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 30: 81-94Google Scholar
  78. Lewis OT andHurford C (1997) Assessing the status of the marsh fritillary butterfly (Eurodryas aurinia): an example from Glamorgan, UK. Journal of Insect Conservation 1: 159-166Google Scholar
  79. Martin P andSzuter CR (1999) War zones and game sinks in Lewis and Clark' West. Conservation Biology 13: 36-45Google Scholar
  80. Martin RM,Ibarra F,Cox JR,Alston DG andRasmussen GA (1996) Fire effects on spittlebug populations on buffelgrass pastures in the Sonoran desert. In: Ffolliott PF,DeBano LF,Baker MB Jr,Gottfreid GJ,Solis-Garza G,Edminster CB,Neary DG,Allen LS andHamre RH (eds) Effects of Fire on Madrean Province Ecosystems: a Symposium Proceedings, pp 169-174. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-289, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  81. Mattoni R,Pratt GF,Longcore TR,Emmel JF andGeorge JN (1997) The endangered quino checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas editha quino (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 34: 99-118Google Scholar
  82. McCabe TL (1981) The Dakota skipper, Hesperia dacotae (Skinner): range and biology, with special reference to North Dakota. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 35: 179-193Google Scholar
  83. McNaughton SJ (1985) Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: the Serengeti. EcologicalMonographs 55: 259-294Google Scholar
  84. Miller WE (1979) Fire as an insect management tool. Entomological Society of America Bulletin 25: 137-140Google Scholar
  85. Moldenke AR (1977) Insect-plant relations. In: Thrower NJW andBradbury DE (eds) Chile-California Mediterranean Scrub Atlas, pp 199-217. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PennsylvaniaGoogle Scholar
  86. Moldenke AR (1979) Pollination ecology as an assay for ecosystemic organization: convergent evolution in Chile and California. Phytologia 42: 415-454Google Scholar
  87. Moore CT (1988) Mid-nineteenth century short grass expansion in the central and southern Great Plains. In: Davis A andStanford G (eds) The prairie: roots of our culture; foundation of our economy, Proceedings of the 10th North American Prairie Conference, section 01.04. N ative Prairies Association of Texas, DallasGoogle Scholar
  88. Morris MG (1971) The management of grassland for conservation of invertebrate animals. In: Duffey E andWatt AS (eds) The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation, pp 527-552. Blackwell Science Publishers, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris MG (1975) Preliminary observations on the effects of burning on the Hemiptera (Heteroptera and Auchenorrhyncha) of limestone grassland. Biological Conservation 7: 311-319Google Scholar
  90. Morris MG (1981) Responses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting, III. Adverse effects on Auchenorhyncha. Journal of Applied Ecology 18: 107-123Google Scholar
  91. Morris MG andRispin WE (1988) A beetle fauna of oolitic limestone grassland, and the responses of species in conservation management by different cutting régimes. Biological Conservation 43: 87-105Google Scholar
  92. Munguira ML andThomas JA (1992) Use of road verges by butterfly and burnet populations, and the effect of roads on adult dispersal and mortality. Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 316-329Google Scholar
  93. Nagel HG (1973) Effect of spring prairie burning on herbivorous and non-herbivorous arthropod populations. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 46: 485-497Google Scholar
  94. New TR (1992) Conservation of butterflies inAustralia. Journal ofResearch on the Lepidoptera 29: 237-253Google Scholar
  95. New TR (ed) (1993) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (butterflies). IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  96. New TR andSands DPA (1996) Progress in butterfly conservation in Australia. In: Ae SA,Hirowatari T,Ishii M andBrower LP (eds) Decline and Conservation of Butterflies in Japan III, pp 116-127. Lepidopterological Society of Japan, OsakaGoogle Scholar
  97. Niemelä J (1997) Invertebrates and boreal forest management. Conservation Biology 11: 601-610Google Scholar
  98. Niemelä J,Langor D and Spence JR (1993) Effects of clear-cut harvesting on boreal ground-beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in western Canada. Conservation Biology 7: 551-561Google Scholar
  99. Nuzzo VA (1986) Extent and status of midwest oak savanna: presettlement and 1985. Natural Areas Journal 6: 6-36Google Scholar
  100. Oates MR (1995) Butterfly conservation within the management of grassland habitats. In: Pullin AS (ed) Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies, pp 98-112. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. Opler PA (1981) Management of prairie habitats for insect conservation. Natural Areas Journal 1: 3-6Google Scholar
  102. Opler PA (1998) A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Co., BostonGoogle Scholar
  103. Panzer R (1988) Managing prairie remnants for insect conservation. Natural Areas Journal 8: 83-90Google Scholar
  104. Panzer RJ (1998) Insect conservation within the severely fragmented eastern tallgrass prairie landscape. PhD dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  105. Panzer R andSchwartz MW (1998) Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conservation Biology 12: 693-702Google Scholar
  106. Paquin P andCoderre D (1997) Deforestation and fire impact on edaphic insect larvae and other macroarthropods. Environmental Entomology 26: 21-30Google Scholar
  107. Payette S,Morneau C,Sirois L andDesponts M (1989) Recent fire history of the northern Québec Biomes. Ecology 70: 656-673Google Scholar
  108. Pippin WF and Nichols B (1996) Observations of arthropod populations following the La Mesa Fire of 1977. In: Allen CD (ed) Fire effects in Southwestern Forests: Proceedings of the Second La Mesa Fire Symposium, General Technical Report RM-GTR-286, pp 161-165. USDA Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  109. Powell JA andParker MW (1993) Lange' Metalmark, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock. In: New TR (ed) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), pp 116-119. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  110. Prince GB (1993) The Australian hairstreak, Pseudalmenus chlorinda (Blanchard). In: New TR (ed) Conservation Biology of Lycaenidae (Butterflies), pp 171-172. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  111. Reed CC (1997) Responses of prairie insects and other arthropods to prescription burns. Natural Areas Journal 17: 380-385Google Scholar
  112. Rice LA (1932) Effect of fire on animal communities. Ecology 13: 392-401Google Scholar
  113. Riechert SB andReeder WC (1970) Effects of fire on spider distribution in southwestern Wisconsin prairies. In: Zimmerman JH (ed) Second Northern Illinois PrairieWorkshop, pp 74-89. Rock Valley College, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  114. Royer RA andMarrone GM (1992a) Report on the Conservation Status in North and South Dakota of Hesperia dacotae, a candidate endangered species. US Fish and Wildlife Service, BismarckGoogle Scholar
  115. Royer RA andMarrone GM (1992b) Report on the Conservation Status in North and South Dakota of Speyeria idalia, a candidate endangered species. US Fish and Wildlife Service, BismarckGoogle Scholar
  116. Royer RA andMarrone GM (1992c) Report on the Conservation Status of Atrytone arogos in North and South Dakota. US Fish and Wildlife Service, BismarckGoogle Scholar
  117. Royer RA andMarrone GM (1992d) Report on the Conservation Status of Oarisma poweshiek in North and South Dakota. US Fish and Wildlife Service, BismarckGoogle Scholar
  118. Salvato M (1998) The Florida Keys: a paradise endangered. American Butterflies 6(4): 26-35Google Scholar
  119. Samways MJ (1990) Land forms and winter habitat refugia in the conservation of montane grasshoppers in southern Africa. Conservation Biology 4: 375-382Google Scholar
  120. Samways MJ (1996) Insects on the brink of a major discontinuity. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1047-1058Google Scholar
  121. Schlicht DW andOrwig TT (1992) Sequential use of niche by prairie obligate skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with implications for management. In: Smith DD andJacobs CA (eds) Proceedings of the 12th North American Prairie Conference: Recapturing a Vanishing Vision, pp 137-139. University of Northern Iowa, Cedar FallsGoogle Scholar
  122. Schlicht DW andOrwig TT (1998) The status of Iowa' Lepidoptera. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 105: 82-88Google Scholar
  123. Schlicht DW andOrwig TT (1999) The last of the Iowa skippers. American Butterflies 7(1): 4-13Google Scholar
  124. Schwarz KA,Worth RA andEmmel TC (1996) Conservation of two threatened south Florida butterflies and their host plants (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae). Holarctic Lepidoptera 3: 59-61Google Scholar
  125. Schwarzwälder B,Lörtscher M,Erhardt A andZettel J (1997) Habitat utilizations by the heath fritillary butterfly, Mellicta athalia ssp. celadussa (Rott.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in montane grasslands of different management. Biological Conservation 82: 157-165Google Scholar
  126. Seastedt TR (1984) Microarthropods of burned and unburned tallgrass prairie. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57: 468-476Google Scholar
  127. Seastedt TR andReddy MV (1991) Fire, mowing and insecticide effects on soil sternorryncha (Homoptera) densities in tallgrass prairie. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64: 238-242Google Scholar
  128. Seastedt TR,Hayes DC andPetersen NJ (1986) Effects of vegetation, burning, and mowing on soil macroarthropods of tallgrass prairie. In: Clambey GK andPemble RH (eds) The Prairie-Past, Present and Future: Proceedings of the 9th North American Prairie Conference, pp 99-102. Tricollege University Center of Environmental Studies, FargoGoogle Scholar
  129. Shapiro AM (1965) Ecological and behavioral notes on Hesperia metea and Atrytonopsis hianna (Hesperiidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 19: 215-221Google Scholar
  130. Shuey JA (1997) Dancing with fire: ecosystem dynamics, management, and the Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) (Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 51: 263-269Google Scholar
  131. Siemann E,Haarstad J andTilman D (1997) Short-term and long-term effects of burning on oak savanna arthropods. American Midland Naturalist 137: 349-361Google Scholar
  132. Simberloff D (1998) Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passé in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83: 247-257Google Scholar
  133. Swengel AB (1995) Observations of spring larvae of Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in central Wisconsin. Great Lakes Entomologist 28: 155-170Google Scholar
  134. Swengel AB (1996a) Effects of fire and hay management on abundance of prairie butterflies. Biological Conservation 76: 73-85Google Scholar
  135. Swengel AB (1996b) Observations of Incisalia irus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in central Wisconsin 1988-95. Great Lakes Entomologist 29: 47-62Google Scholar
  136. Swengel AB (1997) Habitat associations of sympatric violet-feeding fritillaries (Euptoieta, Speyeria, Boloria) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in tallgrass prairie. Great Lakes Entomologist 30: 1-18Google Scholar
  137. Swengel AB (1998a) Comparisons of butterfly richness and abundance measures in prairie and barrens. Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 1639-1659Google Scholar
  138. Swengel AB (1998b) Effects of management on butterfly abundance in tallgrass prairie and pine barrens. Biological Conservation 83: 77-89Google Scholar
  139. Swengel AB (2000) Habitat restoration for butterflies at Mirror Lake State Park, Wisconsin. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 42: 30-31Google Scholar
  140. Swengel AB andSwengel SR (1996) Factors affecting abundance of adult Karner blues Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Wisconsin barrens 1987-95. Great Lakes Entomologist 29: 93-105Google Scholar
  141. Swengel AB andSwengel SR (1997) Co-occurrence of prairie and barrens butterflies: applications to ecosystem conservation. Journal of Insect Conservation 1: 131-144Google Scholar
  142. Swengel AB andSwengel SR (1999a) Observations of prairie skippers (Oarisma poweshiek, Hesperia dacotae, H. ottoe, H. leonardus pawnee, and Atrytone arogos iowa) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota during 1988-97. Great Lakes Entomologist 32: 267-292Google Scholar
  143. Swengel AB andSwengel SR (1999b) Observations on Schinia indiana and S. lucens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Midwest USA. Holarctic Lepidoptera 6: 11-21Google Scholar
  144. Thomas CD andHarrison S (1992) Spatial dynamics of a patchily distributed butterfly species. Journal of Animal Ecology 61: 437-446Google Scholar
  145. Thomas JA (1984) The conservation of butterflies in temperate countries: past efforts and lessons for the future. In: Vane-Wright RI andAckery PR (eds) The Biology of Butterflies, pp 333-354. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  146. Thomas JA (1995) The ecology and conservation of Maculinea arion and other European species of large blue butterflies. In: Pullin AS (ed) Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies, pp 180-197. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  147. Thomas JA (1999) Return of the large blue. Butterfly Conservation News 71: 18-21Google Scholar
  148. Turner MG,Dale VH andEverham EH III (1997) Fires, hurricanes, and volcanoes: comparing large disturbances. BioScience 47: 758-768Google Scholar
  149. Turner MG,Romme WH andGardner RH (1994) Landscape disturbance models and the long-term dynamics of natural areas. Natural Areas Journal 14: 3-11Google Scholar
  150. Usher MB (1992) Management and diversity of arthropods in Calluna heathland. Biodiversity and Conservation 1: 63-79Google Scholar
  151. Usher MB andJefferson RG (1991) Creating new and successional habitats for arthropods. In: Collins NM andThomas JA (eds) The Conservation of Insects and Their Habitats, pp 263-293. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  152. Usher MB andSmart LM (1988) Recolonization of burnt and cut heathland in the North York Moors by arachnids. The Naturalist 113: 103-111Google Scholar
  153. Van Amburg GL,Swaby JA andPemble RH (1981) Response of arthropods to a spring burn of a tallgrass prairie in northwestern Minnesota. In: Stuckey RL andReese KJ (eds) The Prairie Peninsula-in the 'shadow' of Transeau: Proceedings of the 6th North American Prairie Conference, pp 240-243. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  154. Van Wieren SE (1998) Effects of large herbivores upon the animal community. In: WallisDeVries MF,Bakker JP andVan Wieren SE (eds) Grazing and Conservation Management, pp 185-213. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  155. Vogl RJ (1974) Effect of fire on grasslands. In: Kozlowski TT andAhlgren CE (eds) Fire and Ecosystems, pp 139-194. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  156. Völkl W,Zwölfer H,Romstöck-Völkl M andSchmelzer C (1993) Habitat management in calcareous grasslands: effects on the insect community developing in flower heads of Cynarea. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 307-315Google Scholar
  157. WallisDeVries MF (1998) Large herbivores as key factors for nature conservation. In: WallisDeVries MF,Bakker JP andVanWieren SE (eds) Grazing and Conservation Management, pp 1-20. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  158. Warren MS (1993) A review of butterfly conservation in central southern Britain: II. Site management and habitat selection of key species. Biological Conservation 64: 37-49Google Scholar
  159. Warren SD,Scifres CJ andTeel PD (1987) Response of grassland arthropods to burning: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 19: 105-130Google Scholar
  160. Welch JL,Redak R andKondratieff BC (1991) Effect of cattle grazing on the density and species of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) of the Central Plains Experimental Range, Colorado: a reassessment after two decades. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64: 337-343Google Scholar
  161. Wettstein W andSchmid B (1999) Conservation of arthropod diversity in montane wetlands: effect of altitude, habitat quality and habitat fragmentation on butterflies and grasshoppers. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 363-373Google Scholar
  162. Whitford WG,Van Zee J,Nash MS,Smith WE andHerrick JE (1999) Ants as indicators of exposure to environmental stressors in North American desert grasslands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 54: 143-171Google Scholar
  163. Williams AH (1997) In praise of grazing. Restoration & Management Notes 15: 116-118Google Scholar
  164. Williams A (1998) Response to John Harrington (1998) and Richard A. Henderson (1998). Restoration & Management Notes 16: 7-8Google Scholar
  165. Williams AH (1999) Fauna overwintering in or on stems of Wisconsin prairie forbs. In: Springer JT (ed) Proceedings of the Sixteenth North American Prairie Conference, pp 157-161. University of Nebraska, KearneyGoogle Scholar
  166. Williams EH (1988) Habitat and range of Euphydryas gilletti (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 42: 37-45Google Scholar
  167. Williams EH (1995) Fire-burned habitat and reintroductions of the butterfly Euphydryas gilletti (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49: 184-191Google Scholar
  168. Wright MG (1993) Insect conservation in the African Cape Fynbos, with special reference to endophagous insects. In: Gaston KJ,New TR andSamways MJ (eds) Perspectives on Insect Conservation, pp 97-110. Intercept Ltd, AndoverGoogle Scholar
  169. Wright MG andSamways MJ (1998) Insect species richness tracking plant species richness in a diverse flora: gall-insects in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Oecologia 115: 427-433Google Scholar
  170. Wright MG andSamways MJ (1999) Plant characteristics determine insect borer assemblages on Protea species in the Cape Fynbos, and importance for conservation management. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1089-1100Google Scholar
  171. York A (1999) Long-term effects of frequent low-intensity burning on the abundance of litter-dwelling invertebrates in coastal blackbutt forests of southeastern Australia. Journal of Insect Conservation 3: 191-199Google Scholar
  172. Zimmer K andParmenter RR (1998) Harvester ants and fire in a desert grassland: ecological responses of Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) to experimental wildfires in central New Mexico. Environmental Entomology 27: 282-287Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann B. Swengel
    • 1
  1. 1.BarabooUSA

Personalised recommendations