An Architecture for Supporting Multi-Device, Client-Adaptive Services


The original idea of the World Wide Web was to create a universe of network-accessible information. Since its inception, the World Wide Web has evolved from a means to help people access and use information into an interactive medium. This has caused a dramatic increase in the development effort for interactive services, which now have to support multiple clients with widely varying computing and user interface capabilities. Personalization features tend to render this task even more complex. The paper presents the MUSA (Multiple User Interfaces, Single Application) system, which addresses both issues with the introduction of an event graph that abstracts user interface and personalization issues from the implementation of the service on different client-devices.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Abowd, G. (1999), “Software Engineering Issues for Ubiquitous Computing, ” In Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Software Engineering, pp. 75- 84.

  2. Ball, T., P. Danielson, L. Jagadeesan, R. Jagadeesan, K. Laeufer, P. Mataga, and K. Rehor (2000), “Sisl: Several Interfaces, Single Logic, ” Internatinal Journal of Speech Technology 3, 93–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bass, L., P. Clemens, and R. Kazman (1998), Sofware Architecture in Practice, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Britton, K., R. Case, A. Citron, R. Floyed, Y. Li, C. Seekamp, B. Topol, and K. Tracey (2001), “Transcoding. Extending E-Business to New Environments, ” IBM Systems Journal 40, 1, 153–178.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Compaq (2001), “Project Mercury: Exploring the Future of Handheld Devices, ”

  6. Fontoura, M., W. Pree, and B. Rumpe (2001), The UML Profile for Framework Architectures, chapter “Hints and Guidelines for the Framework Development and Adaptation Process, ” Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gamma, E., R. Helm, R. Johnson, and J. Vlissides (1995), Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Garlan, D. (2000), “Software Architecture: A Roadmap, ” In Conference on the Future of Software Engineering, Ireland, pp. 91- 101.

  9. Garzotto, F., P. Paolini, and D. Schwabe (1993), “HDM - A Model-Based Approach to Hypertext Application Design, ” ACM Transactions on Information Systems 11, 1, 1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. IBM (2001), “IBM Websphere Transcoding Publisher, Version 3.5, ”

  11. Kaasinen, E., M. Aaltonen, J. Kolari, S. Melakoski, and T. Laakko (2000), “Two Approaches to Bringing Internet Services to WAP Devices, ”

  12. McCann, P.J. and G.-C. Roman (1998), “Compositional Programming Abstractions for Mobile Computing, ” Software Engineering 24, 2, 97–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Oracle (2001), “Oracle Mobile Online Studio, Developer's Guide, ” guide.htm

  14. Palm (2000), “Wireless Handhelds, ”

  15. Pree, W. and K. Koskimies (1999), Building Application Frameworks, Object Oriented Foundations of Framework Design, chapter “Framelets - Small is Beautiful, ” M. Fayad, D. Schmidt, and R. Johnson, Eds., Wiley Computer Publishing, pp. 411- 414.

  16. Roman, G., G. Picco, and A. Murphy (2000), “Software Engineering for Mobility: A Roadmap. ”

  17. Rossi, G., D. Schwabe, and A. Garrido (1999), “Designing Computational Hypermedia Applications, ” Journal of Digital Information (JODI) 4, 1.

  18. Szyperski, C. (1998), Component Software - Beyond Object-Oriented Programming, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Taylor, R., K.A. Nies, G.A. Bolcer, C.A. Macfarlane, and K.M. Anderson (1995), “Chiron-1: A Software Architecture for User Interface Development, Maintenance, and Run-Time Support, ” ACM Transactions on Computer- Human Interaction 2, 2, 105–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ubinet (1999), “The Ubiquitous Internet Will be Wireless, ” Computer 128, 10, 126–127.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Wang, K. (1998), “An Event Driven Model for Dialogue Systems, ” Proceedings of the International Conference of Spoken Language Processing 2, 393–396.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Weiser, M. (1991), “The Computer of the 21st Century, ” Scientific American 265, 3, 94–104.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Weiser, M. (1993), “Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing, ” Communications of the ACM 36, 7, 75–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Winjstra, J.G. (2000), “Supporting Diversity with Component Frameworks as Architectural Elements, ” In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of Software Engineering, pp. 51- 60.

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Menkhaus, G. An Architecture for Supporting Multi-Device, Client-Adaptive Services. Annals of Software Engineering 13, 309–327 (2002).

Download citation


  • Operating System
  • User Interface
  • Personalization Feature
  • World Wide
  • Development Effort