Plant and Soil

, Volume 242, Issue 2, pp 183–196 | Cite as

The effect of single tree species on soil microbial activities related to C and N cycling in the Siberian artificial afforestation experiment

  • Oleg V. Menyailo
  • Bruce A. Hungate
  • Wolfgang Zech
Article

Abstract

The effects of grassland conversion to forest vegetation and of individual tree species on microbial activity in Siberia are largely unstudied. Here, we examined the effects of the six most commonly dominant tree species in Siberian forests (Scots pine, spruce, Arolla pine, larch, aspen and birch) on soil C and N mineralization, N2O-reduction and N2O production during denitrification 30 years after planting. We also documented the effect of grassland conversion to different tree species on microbial activities at different soil depths and their relationships to soil chemical properties. The effects of tree species and grassland conversion were more pronounced on N than on C transformations. Tree species and grassland conversion did significantly alter substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and basal respiration, but the differences were not as large as those observed for N transformations. Variances in SIR and basal respiration within species were markedly lower than those in N transformations. Net N mineralization, net nitrification, and denitrification potential were highest under Arolla pine and larch, intermediate under deciduous aspen and birch, and lowest beneath spruce and Scots pine. Tree species caused similar effects on denitrification potential, net N mineralization, and net nitrification, but effects on N2O reduction rate were idiosyncratic, indicating a decoupling of N2O production and reduction. We predict that deciduous species should produce more N2O in the field than conifers, and that Siberian forests will produce more N2O if global climate change alters tree species composition. Basal respiration and SIR showed inverse responses to tree species: when basal respiration increased in response to a given tree species, SIR declined. SIR may have been controlled by NH4+ availability and related therefore to N mineralization, which was negatively affected by grassland conversion. Basal respiration appeared to be less limited by NH4+ and controlled mostly by readily available organic C (DOC), which was higher in concentration under forests than in grassland and therefore basal respiration was higher in forested soils. We conclude that in the Siberian artificial afforestation experiment, soil C mineralization was not limited by N.

afforestation carbon mineralization denitrification N2O-consumption net N mineralization tree species 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber J D and Melillo J M 1991 Terrestrial ecosystems, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, Fort Worth, Chicago, San Francisco, Montreal, Toronto, London, Sydney, Tokyo. 429 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Aber J D, Melillo J M and McClaugherty C A 1990 Predicting longterm patterns of mass loss, nitrogen dynamics, and soil organic matter formation from initial fine litter chemistry in temperate forest ecosystems. Can. J. Bot. 68, 2201–2208.Google Scholar
  3. Attiwill P M, Adams M A, 1993 Nutrient cycling in forests. New Phytol. 124, 561–582.Google Scholar
  4. Bradley R L and Fyles J W 1995 Growth of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings increases soil available C and microbial acquisition of soil-nutrients. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 1565–1571.Google Scholar
  5. Binkley D 1994 The influence of tree species on forest soils: processes and patterns. In: Proceedings of the Trees and Soil Workshop, Lincoln University, 28 February-2 March 1994. Eds. DJ Mead and IS Cornforth. pp 1–33. Arg. Soc. New Zealand Spec. Pub. No. 10. Lincoln University Press, Canterbury.Google Scholar
  6. Bolker B M, Pacala S W, Bazzaz F A, Canhan C D and Levin S A 1995 Species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization: conclusions from a temperate forest model. Glob. Change Biol. 1, 373–381.Google Scholar
  7. Burke I C, Reiners W and Schimel D S 1989 Organic matter turnover in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Biogeochemistry 7, 11–31.Google Scholar
  8. Bütterbach-Bahl K, Gasche R, Breuer L and Papen H 1997 Fluxes of NO and N2O from temperate forest soil: impact of forest type, N deposition and of liming on the NO and N2O emissions. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 48, 79–90.Google Scholar
  9. Côté L, Brown S, Paré D, Fyles J and Bauhus J 2000 Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen mineralization in relation to stand type, stand age and soil texture in the boreal mixedwood. Soil Biol. Biochem. 32, 1079–1090.Google Scholar
  10. Dendooven L and Anderson J M 1995 Maintenance of denitrification potential in pasture soil following anaerobic events. Soil Biol. Biochem. 27, 1251–1260.Google Scholar
  11. FAO 1990 Soil Map of theWorld, revised legend. FAO, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  12. Finzi A C, Breemen N V and Canham C D 1998 Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen. Ecol. Appl. 8(2), 440–446.Google Scholar
  13. Henault C, Devis X, Page S, Justes E, Reau R and Germon J C 1998 Nitrous oxide emission under different soil and management conditions. Biol. Fertil. Soils 28, 199–207.Google Scholar
  14. Matson P A, Vitousek P M, Livingstone G P, Swanberg N A 1990 Sources of variation in nitrous oxide fluxes in Amazonian ecosystems. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 16789–16798Google Scholar
  15. Menyailo O and Huwe B 1999 Activity of denitrification and dynamics of N2O release in soils under six tree species and grassland in central Siberia. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 162, 533–538.Google Scholar
  16. Menyailo O, Hungate B A and Zech W 2002a Tree species mediated soil chemical changes in a Siberian artificial afforestation experiment. Plant Soil 242, 171–182Google Scholar
  17. Menyailo O, Lehmann J, Cravo M S and Zech W 2002b Soil microbial activities in tree-based cropping systems and natural forests of the Central Amazon, Brazil. Soil Biol. Biochem. (in press).Google Scholar
  18. Mikola M 1985 The effect of tree species on the biological properties of forest soil. Nat. Swed. Environ. Protect. Board 3017, 1–29.Google Scholar
  19. Pastor J and Post W M 1988 Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change. Nature 334, 55–58.Google Scholar
  20. Priha O and Smolander A 1997 Microbial biomass and activity in soil and litter under Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula at originally similar field afforestation sites. Biol. Fertil. Soils 24, 45–51.Google Scholar
  21. Priha O, Grayston S J, Pennanen T and Smolander A 1999a Microbial activities related to C and N cycling and microbial community structure in the rhizospheres of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula seedlings in an organic and mineral soil. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 30, 187–199.Google Scholar
  22. Priha O Lechto T and Smolander A 1999b Mycorrhizas and C and N transformations in the rhizospheres of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula seedlings. Plant Soil 206, 191–204.Google Scholar
  23. Schulze E-D, Lloyd J, Kelliher F M, Wirth C, Rebmann C, Lühker B, Mund M, Knohl A, Milyukova I M, Schulze W, Ziegler W, Varlagin A B, Sogachev A F, Valentini R, Dore S, Grigoriev S, Kolle O, Panfyorov M I, Tchebakova N and Vygodskaya N N 1999 Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink-a synthesis. Glob. Change Biol. 5, 703–722.Google Scholar
  24. Stark J M and Hart S C 1997 High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests. Nature 385, 61–64.Google Scholar
  25. StatSoft 1997 STATISTICA for Windows (Computer Program Manual). Tulsa, OK.Google Scholar
  26. van Bachove E, Jones H G, Bertrand N and Prévost D 2000 Winter fluxes of greenhouse gases from snow-covered agricultural soil: Intra-annual and interannual variations. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 1, 113–126.Google Scholar
  27. Vitousek P M, Gosz J R, Grier C C, Melello J M and Reiners W A 1982 A comparative analysis of potential nitrification and nitrate mobility in forest ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 52, 155–177.Google Scholar
  28. Vitousek P M and Sanford R L Jr 1986 Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17, 137–167.Google Scholar
  29. Wedin D A and Tilman D 1990 Species effects on nitrogen cycling: a test with perennial grasses. Oecologia 84, 433–441.Google Scholar
  30. Walley F L, Kessel C and Pennock D J 1996 Landscape-scale variability of N mineralization in forest soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28, 383–391.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg V. Menyailo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bruce A. Hungate
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Zech
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forest SB RASKrasnoyarskRussia
  2. 2.Department of Biological Sciences and Merriam Powell Center for Environmental ResearchNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA

Personalised recommendations