RAPD–PCR Analysis of Genetic Diversity in the Manchurian Pheasant


The genetic diversity of a local population of the Manchurian pheasant Phasianus colchicus pallasi was studied using RAPD–PCR. Based on the DNA patterns obtained in PCR with five arbitrary decanucleotide primers, we assessed genetic polymorphism of this population, estimated genetic distances between individuals, and constructed an NJ phylogenetic tree, and an UPGMA dendrogram of genetic similarity. The population was shown to exhibit high average genetic polymorphism (P = 79.4%) and genetic distances (D = 0.267). Possible reasons for the high genetic diversity of this local population are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    Hill, D. and Robertson, P., The Pheasant Ecology, Man-agement and Conservation,Oxford: BSP Professional Books, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Long, J.L., International Birds of the World, London: David and Charles, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kuz'mina, M.A., Teterevinye i fazanovye SSSR (Grouses and Pheasants of the Soviet Union), Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Ridley, M.W. and Hill, D.A., Social Organization in the Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus): Harem Formation, Mate Selection and the Role of Mate Guarding, J. Zool., 1987, vol. 211, pp. 619-630.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ptitsy SSSR: Kuroobraznye. Zhuravleobraznye (Birds of the Soviet Union: Galliformes and Gruiformes), Lenin-grad: Nauka, 1987.

  6. 6.

    Dolmatova, I.Yu., Saitbatalov, T.F., and Gareev, F.T., RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in Duck: Differences among Breeds, Genetika (Moscow), 2000, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 682-687.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dolmatova, I.Yu., Saitbatalov, T.F., and Gareev, F.T., RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in Duck: Differences among Lines of the Beijing Breed, Genetika (Moscow), 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 805-812.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Semenova, S.K., Filenko, A.L., Vasil'ev, V.A., et al., Use of Polymorphic DNA Markers for the Differentiation of Chicken Breeds of Different Origins, Genetika (Moscow), 1996, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 795-803.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Giesel, J.T., Brazeau, D., Koppelman, R., and Shiver, D., Ring-Necked Pheasant Population Genetic Structure, J. Wildl. Manag., 1997, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1332-1338.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., and Sambrook, J., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Lab., 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Nei, M. and Li, W.H., Mathematical Model for Studying Genetic Variation in Terms of Restriction Endonu-cleases, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1979, vol. 76, pp. 6269-6273.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Trautman, C.G., History, Ecology and Management of the Ring-Necked Pheasant in South Dakota, Pierre: S.D. Dep. Game, Fish and Parks, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Baker, C.M., Manwell, R.F., Labiski, R.F., and Harper, J.A., Molecular Genetics of Avian Proteins: V. Egg, Blood and Tissue Proteins of the Ring-Necked Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus L., Comp. Biochem. Physiol., A: Comp. Physiol., 1966, vol. 17, pp. 467-499.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Novicova, S.M., Chelomina, G.N., and Zhuravlev, Yu.N., RAPD-PCR Analysis of Phylogenetic Relationships of Three Species of the Genus Anas: A. platyrhynchos, A. poecilorhyncha, and A. strepera (Aves, Anseriformes): Introgressive Hybridization of Polyphyletic Origin, in Biodiversity and Dynamics of Ecosystems in North Eurasia, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 79-80.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Spiridonova, L.N., Chelomina, G.N., Kryukov, A.P., and Suzuki, H., Some Features of Genetic Diversity in Birds of the Corvidae Family: Data of RAPD-PCR Analysis, Biodiversity and Dynamics of Ecosystems in North Eurasia, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 110-111.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Delany, M.F., Giesel, J.T., and Brazeau, D.A., Genetic Variability among Populations of the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow, J. Wildl. Manag., 2000, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 631-636.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Barancheev, L.M., Migratsii ptits i mlekopitayushchikh (Migrations of Birds and Mammals), Moscow: Nauka, 1965.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kulikova, I.V., Chelomina, G.N. & Zhuravlev, Y.N. RAPD–PCR Analysis of Genetic Diversity in the Manchurian Pheasant. Russian Journal of Genetics 38, 699–703 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016052203646

Download citation


  • Genetic Diversity
  • Phylogenetic Tree
  • Genetic Distance
  • Genetic Polymorphism
  • Local Population