Advertisement

Defining Chinese Nongovernmental Organizations

  • Qiusha Ma
Article

Abstract

In interpreting the current surge of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in China, scholars have mainly applied western concepts of civil society, corporatism, and the third sector. These perspectives, however, are not sufficient to account for the importance of China's particular historical and political culture. This paper discusses the development and future of NGOs in the context of current scholarly research as well as the role of China's historical and current sociopolitical situation.

China NGOs civil society corporatism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Brain Gain (1995). Business China, pp. 7-8, June 26.Google Scholar
  2. Chan, A. (1993). Revolution or corporatism? Workers and trade unions in post-Mao China. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 29, 24-61.Google Scholar
  3. Chen, J. (1998). Shetuan lifa he shetuanguanli [The law and management of the social organization], Law Publishing House, China.Google Scholar
  4. Fan, B. (ed.) (1995). Zhongguo shehui tuanti dacidian [The encyclopedia of Chinese social organizations], Jingguan Jiaoyu Publishing House, China.Google Scholar
  5. Fisher, J. (1998). Nongovernment: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World, Kumarian Press, West Hartford, CT.Google Scholar
  6. Frolic, B. M. (1997). State-led civil society. In T. Brook and B. T. Frolic (eds.), Civil Society in China, M. E. Sharpe, New York, pp. 20-46.Google Scholar
  7. Gold, T. B. (1990). Tiananmen and beyond, the resurgence of civil society in China. Journal of Democracy, 1, 18-31.Google Scholar
  8. Guojia jingmaowei [The State Committee of Economy and Trade] (1999). Gaige yu tansuo [Reforms and exploration], Business Publishing House, China.Google Scholar
  9. He, B. (1997). The Democratic Implications of Civil Society in China, St. Martin's Press, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Howell, J. (1996). Striking a new balance: New social organizations in post-Mao China. Capital and Class, 54, 89-111.Google Scholar
  11. Huang, P. (1991). The paradigmatic crisis in Chinese studies: Paradoxes in social and economic history. Modern China, 17(3), 299-341.Google Scholar
  12. Li, F. (1998). Jinqiaoqiao de geming, Zhongguo dangdai shimin shehui [A silent revolution: China's contemporary civil society], Mirror Publishing House, Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  13. Ma, M. (1995). Guan shang zhijian: shehui jubian zhong de jidai shenshang [Between government and merchants: Modern gentry-merchants during social transition], Tianjin People's Publishing House, Tianjin.Google Scholar
  14. Ma, Q. (1997). Chinese Nongovernmental and Nonprofit Organizations Since the Late 1970s, Nonprofit Research Fund working paper, The Aspen Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  15. Ma, M., and Zhu, Y. (1993). Chuantong yu jindai de erchong bianzou [The double variation between tradition and modernity], Bashu Publishing House, Chengdu.Google Scholar
  16. Nevitt, C. E. (1996). Private business associations in China: Evidence of civil society or local state power? The China Journal, 36, 25-43.Google Scholar
  17. Pearson, M. M. (1994). The Janus face of business associations in China: Socialist corporatism in foreign enterprises. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 30, 25-46.Google Scholar
  18. Pye, L. W. (2001). Civility, social capital, and civil society: Three powerful concepts for explaining Asia. In B. I. Rotberg (ed.), Patterns of Social Capital: Stability and Change in Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Rankin, M. B. (1986). Elite Activism and Political Transformation in China, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  20. Rankin, M. B. (1990). The origins of a Chinese public sphere: Local elites and community affairs in the late imperial period. Etudes Chinoises, 60, 13-60.Google Scholar
  21. Rankin, M. B. (1993). Some observations on a Chinese public sphere. Modern China, 19(2), 158-182.Google Scholar
  22. Rowe, W. T. (1986). Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1796–1889, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  23. Rowe, W. T. (1989). Hankow: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City, 1796–1895, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  24. Salamon, L. M., and Anheier, H. K. (1992). In search of the nonprofit sector. I: The question of definitions, Voluntas, 3(2), 125-151.Google Scholar
  25. Sang, B. (1995). Qingmo xin zhishijie de shetuan yu huodong [Social organizations of the new academia and their activities during the late Qing], Sanlian Publishers, Beijing.Google Scholar
  26. Schmitter, P. (1974). Still the century of corporatism? In F. B. Pike and T. Stritch (eds.), The New Corporatism: Social-Political Structures in the Iberian World, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.Google Scholar
  27. Strand, D. (1990). Rickshaw Beijing: City People and Politics in the 1920s, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  28. Sullivan, L. R. (1990). The emergence of civil society in China, spring 1989. In T. Saich (ed.), The Chinese People's Movement, Perspective on Spring 1989, East Gate Books, Armonk, pp. 126-145.Google Scholar
  29. Sun, L., Jin, J., He, J., and Bi, X. (1999). Dongyuan yu canyu: disan bumen mujuan jizhi gean yanjiu [Mobilization and participation, a study on the third sector fund-raising mechanisms], Zhejiang People's Publishing House, China.Google Scholar
  30. Unger, J. (1996). Bridges: Private business, the Chinese government and the rise of new associations, China Quarterly, 147, 795-819.Google Scholar
  31. Unger, J., and Chan, A. (1995). China, corporatism, and the East Asian model. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 33, 29-53.Google Scholar
  32. Wakeman, F., Jr. (1993). The civil society and public sphere debate: Western reflections on Chinese political culture. Modern China, 19(2), 108-138.Google Scholar
  33. Wang, D. (1996). Wanqing changjiang shangyuo diqu gonggong lingyu de fazhan [The development of a public sphere in the upper Yangtze River valley]. Lishi Yanjiu [History Study], 1, 5-16.Google Scholar
  34. White, G., Howell, J., and Shang, X. (1996). In Search of Civil Society: Market Reform and Social Change in Contemporary China, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  35. Whiting, S. H. (1991). Politics of NGO development in China. Voluntas, 2(2), 16-48.Google Scholar
  36. Whyte, M. K. (1992). Urban China: A civil society in the making? In A. L. Rosenbaum (ed.), State and Society in China: The Consequences of Reform, Westview Press, San Francisco, pp. 77-101.Google Scholar
  37. Xia, W. (1993). Shimin shehui, Zhongguo jinqi nanyan de meng [Civil society, an impossible dream for China in the near future]. Zhongguo shehui kexue jikan [Chinese Social Science Quarterly], 4, 176-182.Google Scholar
  38. Xiao, G. (1993). Shimen shehui yu Zhongguo xiandaihua de sanchong zhang-ai [Civil society and three obstacles in China's modernization]. Zhongguo shehui kexue jikan [Chinese Social Science Quarterly], 4, 183-188.Google Scholar
  39. Yang, J., and Wang, Y. (eds.). (1992). Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue Xuehui: dangdai Zhongguo huanjing keji shetuan [Chinese Association of Environmental Science: A contemporary social organization of environmental science], Chinese Environmental Science Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  40. Yu, H. (1994). Shanghui yu zhongguo zaoqi xiandaihua [Chamber of Commerce and China's early modernization], Shanghai People's Publishing House, Shanghai.Google Scholar
  41. Zhongguo Qingshaonian Fazhan Jijinhui [China Youth Development Foundation] (1991–95). Xiwang guocheng jianxun [The Newsletter of the Hope Project], Vols. 44–239.Google Scholar
  42. Zhongguo Qingshaonian Yanjiu Zhongxin [The Center for Chinese Youth Studies] (1996). Zhongguo qingnian sixiang daode wenhua zhuangkuang diaocha xilie baogao [A survey series on the ideological, moral, and cultural state of China's youth]. Renmin Ribao [People's Daily], Nov. 8, pp. 1-6.Google Scholar
  43. Zhongyang jigou bianzhi weiyuanhui bangongshi [The Managerial Bureau of the National Institutions] (1996). Shijiu ge shetuan zuzhi jigou [The organizational structures of nineteen social organizations], Huaxia Publishing House, Beijing.Google Scholar
  44. Zhu, Y. (1991). Xinhai geming shiqi xinshi shangren shetuan yianjiu [A study of new merchants' social organizations during the 1911 revolution], The Chinese People's University Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  45. Zhu, Y. (1996). Guanyu wanqing shimin shehui yanjiu de sikao [Thoughts on studies of civil society during the late Qing]. Lishi Yanjiu [History Study], 4, 122-136.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qiusha Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.East Asian Studies ProgramOberlin CollegeOberlinUSA

Personalised recommendations