Purpose. In order to improve our knowledge on the efficacy and safety of sunscreen products, we measured the skin penetration profiles of ultra-violet (UV) filters in vitro and in vivo, and the corresponding sun protection factors (SPF) from two vehicles (an O/W emulsion-gel and petroleum jelly).
Methods. The UV filters tested were oxybenzone (5%, A), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (7.5%, B), and 2-ethylhexylsalicylate (3%, C). Two mg/cm2 were applied for 2 min to 6 h. In vitro penetration measurements were performed with static diffusion cells. In vivo, horny layer concentrations were measured after stripping and the SPF evaluated as recommended by the COLIPA-guidelines.
Results. Significant differences between vehicles were noticed in vitro as well as in vivo. In vitro, the emulsion-gel generated higher epidermal concentrations than petroleum jelly. Values at 6 h, expressed as percent of the applied dose for A, B, and C were 4, 9, and 7% for the emulsion-gel and 2, 1, and 2% for petroleum jelly. An opposite trend was noticed, mainly for A, in the deeper skin layers with concentrations of 2% in the dermis and 5% in the receptor fluid for petroleum jelly and 0.6% and 1% for the emulsion-gel respectively. In vivo, for each UV filter, maximal stratum corneum levels (15 strips) were obtained at 0.5 h with percentages of the applied doses of 50% for the emulsion-gel and 15% for petroleum jelly. SPFs, measured 0.5 h after application amounted to 14 for the emulsion-gel and 5 for petroleum jelly, and decreased in both cases by a factor 2.2 after removal of non penetrated product.
Conclusions. These preliminary results demonstrated that UV filters penetration and retention as well as expected SPF could be optimized by a suitable vehicle.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
C. R. Taylor, R. S. Stern, J. J. Leyden, and B. A. Gilchrest. Photoaging/photodamage and photoprotection. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 22:1–15 (1990).
A. C. Watkinson, K. R. Brain, K. A. Walters, and J. Hadgraft. Prediction of percutaneous penetration of ultra-violet filters in sunscreen formulations. Int. J. Cos. Sci. 14:265–275 (1992).
G. H. Dahms. Choosing emollients and emulsifiers for sunscreen products. Cosmetics & Toiletries 109:45–52 (1994).
T. J. Franz. Percutaneous absorption. On the relevance of the in vitro data. J. Invest. Dermatol. 64:190–195 (1975).
Colipa Task Force. Sun protection factor test method, Bruxelles, 1994.
C. S. Okereke, M. S. Abdel-Rhaman, and M. A. Friedman. Disposition of benzophenone-3 after dermal administration in male rats. Toxicol. Lett. 73:113–122 (1994).
Y. Morimoto, T. Hatanaka, K. Sugibayashi, and H. Omiya. Prediction of skin permeability of drugs: comparison of human and hairless rat skin. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 44:634–639 (1992).
R. J. Feldmann and H. I. Maibach. Absorption of some organic compounds through the skin in man. J. Invest. Dermatol. 54:399–404 (1970).
A. Rougier, D. Dupuis, C. Lotte, R. Roguet, and H. Schaefer. In vivo correlation between stratum corneum reservoir function and percutaneous absorption. J. Invest. Dermatol. 81:275–278 (1983).
J. C. Tsai, N. Weiner, G. L. Flynn, and J. J. Ferry. Drug and vehicle deposition from topical applications: localization of minoxidil within skin strata of the hairless mouse. Skin Pharmacol. 7:262–269 (1994).
V. Masini, F. Bonte, A. Meybeck, and J. Wepierre. Cutaneous bioavailability in hairless rats of tretinoin in liposomes or gel. J. Pharm. Sci. 82:17–21 (1993).
S. Brown and B. L. Diffey. The effect of applied thickness on sunscreen protection: in vivo and in vitro studies. Photochem. Photobiol. 44:509–513 (1986).
About this article
Cite this article
Treffel, P., Gabard, B. Skin Penetration and Sun Protection Factor of Ultra-Violet Filters from Two Vehicles. Pharm Res 13, 770–774 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016012019483
- UV filter
- human skin
- percutaneous absorption
- stratum corneum