Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 7, Issue 10, pp 1042–1047 | Cite as

Use of Shed Snake Skin as a Model Membrane for in Vitro Percutaneous Penetration Studies: Comparison with Human Skin

  • Tomoo Itoh
  • Jun Xia
  • Ravi Magavi
  • Toshiaki Nishihata
  • J. Howard Rytting


The potential usefulness of shed snake skin as a model membrane for transdermal research was examined. There are similarities between shed snake skin and human stratum corneum in terms of structure, composition, lipid content, water permeability, etc. The permeability of various compounds and the contribution of several functional groups to the permeability were also found to be similar between shed snake skin and human skin. Moreover, the permeability of compounds through shed snake skin was increased by Azone, one of the most extensively studied transdermal penetration enhancers. Considering the similarities between shed snake skin and human skin, ease of storage and handling, and low cost, shed snake skin may offer a good model membrane for transdermal research.

skin penetration transdermal shed snake skin functional group contribution Azone Elaphe obsoleta 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoo Itoh
    • 1
  • Jun Xia
    • 1
  • Ravi Magavi
    • 1
  • Toshiaki Nishihata
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Howard Rytting
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryUniversity of KansasLawrence
  2. 2.Upjohn Tsukuba Research LaboratoriesIbaraki-kenJapan

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