Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 139, Issue 1–4, pp 183–214 | Cite as

Contaminants in Arctic Snow Collected over Northwest Alaskan Sea Ice

  • John R. Garbarino
  • Elaine Snyder-Conn
  • Thomas J. Leiker
  • Gerald L. Hoffman
Article

Abstract

Snow cores were collected over sea ice from four northwest Alaskan Arctic estuaries that represented the annual snowfallfrom the 1995–1996 season. Dissolved trace metals, major cationsand anions, total mercury, and organochlorine compounds weredetermined and compared to concentrations in previous arctic studies. Traces (<4 nanograms per liter, ng L-1) of cis- and trans-chlordane, dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroterephthalate, dieldrin, endosulfan II, andPCBs were detected in some samples, with endosulfan I consistently present. High chlorpyrifos concentrations (70–80 ng L-1) also were estimated at three sites. The snow washighly enriched in sulfates (69–394 mg L-1), with highproportions of nonsea salt sulfates at three of five sites (9 of 15 samples), thus indicating possible contamination throughlong-distance transport and deposition of sulfate-rich atmospheric aerosols. Mercury, cadmium, chromium, molybdenum, and uranium were typically higher in the marine snow (n = 15) in relation to snow from arctic terrestrial studies, whereas cations associated with terrigenous sources, such as aluminum,frequently were lower over the sea ice. One Kasegaluk Lagoon site (Chukchi Sea) had especially high concentrations of totalmercury (mean = 214 ng L-1, standard deviation = 5 ng L-1), but no methyl mercury was detected above the method detection limit (0.036 ng L-1) at any of the sites. Elevated concentrations of sulfate, mercury, and certain heavymetals might indicate mechanisms of contaminant loss from the arctic atmosphere over marine water not previously reported overland areas. Scavenging by snow, fog, or riming processes and thehigh content of deposited halides might facilitate the loss of such contaminants from the atmosphere. Both the mercury and chlorpyrifos concentrations merit further investigation in view of their toxicity to aquatic organisms at low concentrations.

Alaska anions arctic atmospheric Beaufort chlorpyrifos Chukchi contaminants mercury metals organochlorine snow 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambrose, R. E., Henny, C. J. Hunter, R. E. and Crawford, J. A.: 1988, 'Organochlorines in Alaskan Peregrine Falcon Eggs and Their Current Impact on Productivity', in T. J. Cade, J. H. Enderson, C. G. Thelander and C. M. White (eds), Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their Management and Recovery, The Peregrine Fund, Inc., Boise, ID, U.S.A., pp. 385–393.Google Scholar
  2. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP): 1998, Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report, ISBN 82-7655-061-4, Oslo, Norway, 859 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS): 1999, 'Health of the Arctic Marine Ecosystem', in Marine Science in the Arctic, ARCUS, Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A., 84 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Barbante, C., Bellomi, T., Mezzadri, G., Cescon, P., Scarponi, G., Morel, C., Jay S., Van De Velde, K., Ferrari, C. and Boutron, C. F.: 1997, 'Direct determination of heavy metals at picogram per gram levels in Greenland and Antarctic snow by double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry', J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12, 925–931.Google Scholar
  5. Barrie, L. A., Hoff, R. M. and Daggupaty, S. M.: 1981, 'The influence of mid-latitudinal pollution sources on haze in the canadian arctic', Atmos. Environ. 15, 1407–1419.Google Scholar
  6. Bidleman, T.F., Patton, G.W., Hinckley, D.A., Walla, M.D., Cotham, W.E. and Hargrave, B.T.: 1990, 'Chlorinated Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Atmosphere of the Canadian Arctic', in D. A. Kurtz (ed.), Long Range Transport of Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, U.S.A., pp. 347–372.Google Scholar
  7. Bloom, N. S. and Crecelius, E. A.: 1983, 'Determination of mercury in sea water at sub-nanogram per liter levels', Mar. Chem. 14, 49–59.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, N. S. and Fitzgerald, W. F.: 1988, 'Determination of volatile mercury species at the picogram level by low temperature gas chromatography with cold vapour atomic fluorescence detection', Anal. Chim. Acta 208, 151–161.Google Scholar
  9. Boultron, C.: 1979, 'Trace element content of Greenland snows along an east-west transect', Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43, 1253–1258.Google Scholar
  10. Bowes, G. W. and Jonkel, C. J.: 1975, 'Presence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in arctic and subarctic marine food chains', J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32, 2111–2123.Google Scholar
  11. Chernyak, S. M., Rice, C. P. and McConnell, J. L.: 1996, 'Evidence of currently-used pesticides in air, ice, fog, seawater and surface microlayer in the Bering and Chukchi Seas', Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32, 410–419.Google Scholar
  12. Court,G.S., Gates, C.C. Boag, D.A., Macneil, J.D., Bradley, D.M., Fesser, A.C., Patterson, J.R., Stenhouse, G. B. and Oliphant, L. W.: 1990, 'A toxicological assessment of peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus tundrius, breeding in the keewatin district of the Northwest Territories, Canada', Can. Field-Nat. 104, 255–272.Google Scholar
  13. Danielsson, L., Magnusson, B., Westerlund, S. and Zhang, K.: 1982, 'Trace metal determina-tions in estuarine waters by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after extraction of dithiocarbamate complexes into freon', Anal. Chim. Acta 144, 183–188.Google Scholar
  14. Davidson, C. I., Chu, L., Grimm, T. C., Nasta, M. A. and Qamoos, M. P.: 1981, 'Wet and dry depostion of trace elements onto the Greenland ice sheet', Atmos. Environ. 15, 1429–1437.Google Scholar
  15. Davidson, C. I., Santhanam, S., Fortmann, R. C. and Olson, M. P.: 1985, 'Atmospheric transport and deposition of trace elements onto the Greenland ice sheet', Atmos. Environ. 19, 2065–2081.Google Scholar
  16. Davidson, C. I., Honrath, R. E., Kadane, J. B., Tsay, R. S., Mayewski, P. A., Lyons, W. B. and Heidam, N. Z.:1987, 'The scavenging of atmospheric sulfate by arctic snow', Atmos. Environ. 21, 871–882.Google Scholar
  17. Davidson, C. I., Harrington, J. R., Stephenson, M. J., Small, M. J., Boscoe, F. P. and Gandley, R. E.: 1989, 'Seasonal variations in sulfate, nitrate and chloride in the Greenland ice sheet: relation to atmospheric concentrations', Atmos. Environ. 23, 2483–2493.Google Scholar
  18. Davidson, C. I., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Mosher, B. W., Dibb, J. E., Borys, R. D., Bodhaine, B. A., Rasmussen, R. A., Boutron, C. F., Gorlach, U., Cachier, U., Ducret, J., Colin, J.-L., Heidam, N. Z., Kemp, K. and Hillamo, R.: 1993, 'Chemical constituents in the air and snow at dye 3, Greenland: I. seasonal variations', Atmos. Environ. 27A, 2709–2722.Google Scholar
  19. De Caritat, P., Åyrås, M., Niskavaara, H., Chekushin, V., Bogatyrev, I. and Reimann, C.: 1998, 'Snow composition in eight catchments in the Central Barents Euro-Arctic Region', Atmos. Environ. 32, 2609–2626.Google Scholar
  20. Fishman, M. J. (ed.): 1993, 'Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory-Determination of Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Water and Fluvial Sediments', U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93–125, 217 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Fishman, M. J. and Friedman, L. C. (eds): 1989, 'Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments', in Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter A1, U.S. Geological Survey, 626 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Ford, J., Landers, D., Kugler, D., Lasorsa, B., Allen-Gil, S., Crecelius, E. and Martinson, J.: 1995, 'Inorganic contaminants in arctic alaskan ecosystems: long-range atmospheric transport or local sources?', Sci. Total Environ. 160/161, 323–335.Google Scholar
  23. Fowler, S. W.: 1990, 'Critical review of selected heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the marine environment', Mar. Environ. Res. 29, 1–14.Google Scholar
  24. Garbarino, J. R. and Taylor, H. E.: 1979, 'An inductive-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometric method for routine water quality testing', Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 220–226.Google Scholar
  25. Garbarino, J. R. and Taylor, H. E.: 1994, 'Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Dissolved Trace Elements in Natural Water', U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-358, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Gordon, G. E., Zoller, W. H. and Gladney, E. S.: 1973, 'Abnormally Enriched Trace Elements in the Atmosphere', in D. D. Hemphill (ed.), Trace Substances in Environmental Health – VIII,Univ. of Missouri Press, Columbia, MO, U.S.A., pp. 167–175.Google Scholar
  27. Gosselin, M., Levasseur, M., Wheeler, P. A., Horner, R. A. and Booth, B. C.: 1997, 'New measurements of phytoplankton and ice algae production in the Arctic Ocean', Deep Sea Res. Part II 44, 1623–1644.Google Scholar
  28. Gregor, D. J.: 1990, 'Deposition and Accumulation of Selected Agricultural Pesticides in Canadian Arctic Snow', in D. A. Kurtz (ed.), Long Range Transport of Pesticides, Lewis Publishers, Inc., Chelsea, MI, U.S.A., pp. 373–386.Google Scholar
  29. Gregor, D. J. and Gummer, W. D.: 1989, 'Evidence of atmospheric transport and deposition of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in canadian arctic snow', Environ. Sci. Technol. 23, 561–565.Google Scholar
  30. Gregurek, D., Reimann, C. and Stumpfl, E. F.: 1998, 'Trace elements and precious metals in snow samples from the immediate vicinity of nickel processing plants, Kola Peninsula, Northwest Russia', Environ. Pollut. 102, 221–232.Google Scholar
  31. Halter, B. C., Harris, J. M. and Rahn, K. A.: 1985, 'A study of winter variability in carbon dioxide and arctic haze aerosols at Barrow, Alaska', Atmos. Environ. 19, 2033–2037.Google Scholar
  32. Hansen, C. T., Nielsen, C. O., Dietz, R. and Hansen, M. M.: 1990, 'Zinc, cadmium, mercury, and selenium in minke whales, belugas, and narwhals from West Greenland', Polar Biol. 10, 529–539.Google Scholar
  33. Hargrave, B. T., Vass, W. P., Erickson, P. E. and Fowler, B. R.: 1988, 'Atmospheric transport of organochlorines to the arctic ocean', Tellus 40B, 480–493.Google Scholar
  34. Heintzenberg, J.: 1989, 'Arctic haze: air pollution in the arctic and antarctic', Ambio 18, 50–55.Google Scholar
  35. Heintzenberg, J. and Larssen, S.: 1983, 'SO2 and \({\text{SO}}_{\text{4}}^{{\text{2}} - } \) in the arctic: interpretation of observations at three norwegian arctic-subarctic stations', Tellus 35B, 255–265.Google Scholar
  36. Herron, M. M., Langway Jr., C. C., Weiss, H. V. and Cragin, J. H.: 1977, 'Atmospheric trace metals and sulfates in the Greenland ice sheet', Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 915–920.Google Scholar
  37. Horvat, M., Liang, L. and Bloom, N. S.: 1993, 'Comparison of distillation with other current isolation methods for the determination of methyl mercury compounds in low level environmental samples. Part II – Water', Anal. Chim. Acta 282, 153–168.Google Scholar
  38. Iverfeldt, Å.: 1995, 'Mercury Chemistry in Air and Its Atmospheric Residence Time', Proceedings of 1995 Canadian Mercury Network Workshop, 29–30 September, 1995, York University,Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  39. Iverfeldt, Å. and Lindqvist, O.: 1986, 'Atmospheric oxidation of elemental mercury by ozone in the aqueous phase', Atmos. Environ. 20, 1567–1573.Google Scholar
  40. Iverfeldt, Å., Munthe, J., Brosset, C. and Pacyna, J.: 1995, 'Long-term changes in concentrations and deposition of atmospheric mercury over Scandinavia', Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 227–233.Google Scholar
  41. Iwata, H., Tanabe, S., Sakai, N. and Tatsukawa, R.: 1993, 'Distribution of persistent organochlorines in the oceanic air and sulfate seawater and the role of ocean on their global transport and fate', Environ. Sci. Technol. 27, 1080–1098.Google Scholar
  42. Jones, S. R. and Garbarino, J. R.: 1999, 'Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory-Determination of Arsenic and Selenium in Water and Sediment by Graphite Furnace – Atomic Absorption Spectrometry', U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-639, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Junge, C. E.: 1977, 'Processes Responsible for Trace Content in Precipitation', in Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice, Proceedings IUGG Symposium, Grenoble, France, August–September 1975, IAHS Publication 118, 63–77.Google Scholar
  44. Kahl, J. D., Harris, J. M., Herbert, G. A. and Olson, M. P.: 1989, 'Intercomparison of three long-range trajectory models applied to arctic haze', Tellus 41B, 524–536.Google Scholar
  45. Kahl, J. D.: 1996, 'On the prediction of trajectory model error', Atmos. Environ. 30, 2945–2957.Google Scholar
  46. Kerr, R. A.: 1979, 'Global pollution: is the arctic haze actually industrial smog?', Science 205, 290–293.Google Scholar
  47. Kerr, R. A.: 1981, 'Pollution of the arctic confirmed', Science 212, 1013–1014.Google Scholar
  48. Kinrade, J. D. and Van Loon, J. C.: 1974, 'Solvent extraction for use with flame atomic absorption spectrometry', Anal. Chem. 46, 1894–1898.Google Scholar
  49. Landers, D. H., Ford, J., Gubala, C., Monetti, M., Lasorsa, B. K. and Martinson, J.: 1995, 'Mercury in vegetation and lake sediments from the U.S. arctic', Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 591–601.Google Scholar
  50. Liang, L. and Bloom, N. S.: 1993, 'Determination of total mercury by single-stage gold amalgamation with cold vapour atomic spectrometric detection', J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 8, 591–594.Google Scholar
  51. Lowenthal, D. H. and Rahn, K. A.: 1985, 'Regional sources of pollution aerosol at Barrow, Alaska during winter 1979–1990 as deduced from elemental tracers', Atmos. Environ. 19, 2011–2024.Google Scholar
  52. Lu, J. Y., Schroeder, W. H., Barrie, L. A., Steffen, A., Welch, H. E., Martin, K., Lockhart, W. L., Hunt, R. V., Boila, G. and Richter, A.: 2001, 'Magnification of atmospheric mercury deposition to polar regions in springtime: the link to tropospheric ozone depletion chemistry', Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3219–3222.Google Scholar
  53. Majewski, M. S. and Capel, P. D.: 1995, Pesticides in the Atmosphere, Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI, U.S.A., 214 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Mart, L.: 1983, 'Seasonal variations of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ni levels in snow from the eastern Arctic ocean', Tellus 35B, 131–141.Google Scholar
  55. McConnell, L. L., Nelson, E., Rice, C. P., Baker, J. E., Johnson, W. E., Harman, J. A. and Bialek, K.: 1997, 'Chlorpyrifos in the air and surface water of Chesapeake Bay: predictions of atmospheric deposition fluxes', Environ. Sci. Technol. 31, 1390–1398.Google Scholar
  56. McNeely, R. and Gummer, W. D.: 1984, 'A reconnaissance survey of the environmental chemistry in East-Central Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.', Arctic 37, 210–223.Google Scholar
  57. Mitchell, J. M.: 1957, 'Visual range in the polar regions with particular reference to the alaskan arctic', J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (Special supplement), Part 1, 195–211.Google Scholar
  58. Muir, D. C. G., Ford, C. A., Grift, N. P., Metner, D. A. and Lockhart, W. L.: 1990, 'Geographic variation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in burbot (Lota lota) from remote lakes and rivers in Canada', Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 19, 530–542.Google Scholar
  59. Munthe, J.: 1992, 'The aqueous oxidation of elemental mercury by ozone', Atmos. Environ. 26A, 1461–1468.Google Scholar
  60. Murozumi, M., Chow, T. J. and Patterson, C.: 1969, 'Chemical concentration of pollutant aerosols, terrestrial dusts and sea salts in Greenland and antarctic snow strata', Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 33, 1247–1294.Google Scholar
  61. Noble, D. G. and Elliott, J. E.: 1990, 'Levels of contaminants in canadian raptors, 1966 to 1988; effects and temporal trends', Can. Field-Nat. 104, 222–243.Google Scholar
  62. Peakall, D. B., Noble, D. G, Elliot, J. E., Somers, J. D. and Erickson, G.: 1990, 'Environmental contaminants in canadian peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus: a toxicological assessment', Can. Field-Nat. 104, 244–254.Google Scholar
  63. Petersen, G., Iverfeldt, Å. and Munthe, J.: 1995, 'Atmospheric mercury species over central and northern Europe-Model calculations and comparison with observations from the nordic air and precipitation network for 1987–1988', Atmos. Environ. 29, 47–67.Google Scholar
  64. Pleijel, K. and Munthe, J.: 1995a, 'Modeling the atmospheric mercury cycle-chemistry in fog droplets', Atmos. Environ. 29, 1441–457.Google Scholar
  65. Pleijel, K. and Munthe, J.: 1995b, 'Modeling the atmospheric chemistry of mercury', Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 317–324.Google Scholar
  66. Raatz, W. E. and Shaw, G. E.: 1984, 'Long-range tropospheric transport of pollution aerosols into the alaskan arctic', J. Clim. Appl. Met. 23, 1052–1064.Google Scholar
  67. Rahn, K. A.: 1981a, 'Relative importances of North America and Eurasia as sources of arctic aerosol', Atmos. Environ. 15, 1447–1455.Google Scholar
  68. Rahn, K. A.: 1981b, 'Relative Mn/V ratio as a tracer of large-scale sources of pollution aerosol for the Arctic', Atmos. Environ. 15, 1457–1464.Google Scholar
  69. Rahn, K. A. and Lowenthal, D. H.: 1986, 'Who's Polluting the Arctic? Why Is It So Important to Know? An American Perspective', in B. Stonehouse (ed.), Arctic Air Pollution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, pp. 85–95.Google Scholar
  70. Schroeder, W. H., Anlauf, K. G., Barrie, L. A., Lu, J. Y., Steffen, A., Schneeberger, D. R. and Berg, T.: 1998, 'Arctic springtime depletion of Mercury', Nature 394, 331–332.Google Scholar
  71. Shaw, G. E.: 1976, 'Comparison of Arctic and Antarctic Haze, Fairbanks, Alaska', Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, U.S.A., Abstract, September 1976.Google Scholar
  72. Shaw, G. E.: 1982, 'Evidence for a central eurasian source area of arctic haze in Alaska', Nature 299, 815–818.Google Scholar
  73. Shaw, G. E.: 1991a, 'Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses'1. Aged pollution', J. Geophys. Res. 96(D12), 22,357–22,368.Google Scholar
  74. Shaw, G. E.: 1991b, 'Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses'2. Sea salt and marine product', J. Geophys. Res. 96(D12), 22,369–22,372.Google Scholar
  75. Sherrell, R. M., Boyle, E. A., Falkner, K. K. and Harris, N. R.: 2000, 'Temporal variability of Cd, Pb, and Pb isotope deposition in central Greenland snow', Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 1, paper number 1999GC000007, 27 pp.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, T. G. and Armstrong, F. A. J.: 1975, 'Mercury in seals, terrestrial carnivores, and principal food items of the inuit, from Holman, N.W.T.', J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32, 795–801.Google Scholar
  77. Snyder-Conn, E. and Lubinski, M.: 1993, 'Contaminant and Water Quality Baseline Data for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1988–1989. Vol. 2, Raw Data', Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Technical Report NAES-TR-93-03, Fairbanks, AK, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  78. Snyder-Conn, E., Garbarino, J. R., Hoffman, G. L. and Oelkers, A.: 1997, 'Soluble trace elements and total mercury in Arctic alaskan snow', Arctic 50, 201–215.Google Scholar
  79. Sturgeon, R. E., Willie, S. N., Zheng, J. and Kudo, A.: 1993, 'Determination of ultratrace levels of heavy metals in Arctic snow by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry', J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 8, 1053–1058.Google Scholar
  80. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: 2000, 'Definition and Procedure for Determination of the Method Detection Limit', in Guideline establishing test procedures for the analysis of pollutants, U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Appendix B to Part 136, July 1, 2000 Edition, pp. 310–313.Google Scholar
  81. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: 1997, 'Mercury Study Report to Congress', The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards and the Office of Research and Development, EPA-452/R-97-003.Google Scholar
  82. Wagemann, R., Lockhart, W. L., Welch, H. and Innes, S.: 1995, 'Arctic marine mammals as integrators and indicators of mercury in the Arctic', Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 80, 683–693.Google Scholar
  83. Wagemann, R., Snow, N. B., Lutz, A. and Scott, C. P.: 1983, 'Heavy metals in tissues and organs of the narwhal (Monodon monoceros)', Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40(2), 206–216.Google Scholar
  84. Wagemann, R., Stewart, R. E. A., Béland, P. and Desjardins, C.: 1990, 'Heavy metals and selenium in tissues of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, from the Canadian Arctic and the St. Lawrence Estuary', Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 1558–1563.Google Scholar
  85. Weiss, H. V., Herron, M. M. and Langway Jr., C. C.: 1978, 'Natural enrichment of elements in snow', Nature 274, 352–353.Google Scholar
  86. Welch, H. E., Muir, D. C. G., Billeck, B. N., Lockhart, W. L., Brunskill, G. J., Kling, H. J., Olson, M. P. and Lemoine, R. M.: 1991, 'Brown snow: a long-range transport event in the canadian arctic', Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 280–286.Google Scholar
  87. Wolff, E. W. and Peel, D. A.: 1985, 'The record of global pollution in polar snow and ice', Nature 313, 535–540.Google Scholar
  88. Wolff, E. W. and Peel, D. A.: 1988, 'Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in snow near dye 3 in South Greenland', Ann. Glaciol. 10, 193–197.Google Scholar
  89. Wright, R. F. and Dovland, H.: 1978, 'Regional Surveys of the Chemistry of the Snowpack in Norway, Late Winter 1973, 1974, 1975 and 1976', Atmos. Environ. 12, 1755–1768.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Garbarino
    • 1
  • Elaine Snyder-Conn
    • 2
  • Thomas J. Leiker
    • 1
  • Gerald L. Hoffman
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver Federal CenterDenverU.S.A
  2. 2.U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceArlingtonU.S.A

Personalised recommendations