AIDS and Behavior

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 107–116 | Cite as

Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Status, and Sexual Risk Reduction

  • Andrea Carlson Gielen
  • Karen A. McDonnell
  • Patricia J. O'Campo


This study describes the risk of intimate partner violence for women in a low-income, urban setting and the impact of violence on condom use. Partner-specific data were used to link partner characteristics with the measures of both abuse and condom use. Using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), we determined annual rates, chronicity, and types of intimate partner violence among 188 HIV-positive and 257 HIV-negative women. Of the total sample, 62% reported experiencing psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse; 44% experienced frequent abuse (≥13 events); and 29% suffered an injury. Rates did not differ by women's HIV status. Women who experienced frequent abuse were significantly less likely to have used condoms with their intimate partner. Partner characteristics significantly associated with experiencing frequent abuse were his HIV status and substance use. Findings can help inform the development of programs and policies that promote women's health through integrated approaches to intimate partner violence and HIV prevention.

Intimate partner violence domestic violence Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) HIV women condom use 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Burke, J. G., Gielen, A. C., McDonnell, K. A., O'Campo, P., and Maman, S. (2001). The process of ending abuse in intimate relationships: Qualitative exploration of the transtheoretical model, Violence Against Women, 7, 1144-1163.Google Scholar
  2. Cabral, R. J., Pulley, L., Artz, L. M., Brill, I., and Macaluso, M. (1998). Women at risk of HIV/STD: The importance of male partners as barriers to condom use. AIDS and Behavior, 2, 75-85.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, C. A. (1995). Male gender roles and sexuality: Implications for women's AIDS risk and prevention. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 197-210.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, J. C., and Soeken, K. L. (1999). Forced sex and intimate partner violence: Effects on women's risk and women's health. Violence Against Women, 5, 1017-1035.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, M., Deamant, C., Barken, S., Richardson, J., Young, M., Holman, S., Anastos, K., Cohen, J., and Melnick, S. (2000). Domestic violence and childhood abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 560-565.Google Scholar
  6. Collins, K. S., Schoen, C., Joseph, S., Duchon, L., Simantov, E., and Yellowitz, M. (1999). Health Concerns Across a Woman's Lifespan: The Commonwealth Fund 1998 Survey of Women's Health. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.Google Scholar
  7. Eby, K., Campbell, J. C., and Sullivan, C. M. (1995). Health effects of experiences of sexual violence for women with abusive partners. Health Care for Women International, 16, 563-576.Google Scholar
  8. El-Bassel, N., Gilbert, L., Krishnan, S., Schilling, R. F., Gaeta, T., Purpura, S., and Witte, S. S. (1998). Partner violence and sexual HIV-risk behaviors among women in an inner-city emergency department. Violence and Victims, 13, 377-393.Google Scholar
  9. Frasier, P.Y., Slatt, L., Kowlowitz, V., and Glowa, P. T. (2001). Using the stages of change model to counsel victims of intimate partner violence. Patient Education and Counseling, 43, 211-217.Google Scholar
  10. Gielen, A. C., O'Campo, P., Faden, R. R., Kass, N. E., and Xue, X. (1994). Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing years. Social Science and Medicine, 39, 781-787.Google Scholar
  11. Gielen, A. C., O'Campo, P., Faden, R. R., and Eke, A. (1997). Women's disclosure of HIV status: Experiences of mistreatment and violence in an urban setting. Women and Health, 25, 19-31.Google Scholar
  12. Grisso, J. A., Schwarz, D. F., Hirschinger, N., Sammel, M., Brensinger, C., Santanna, J., Lowe, R. A., Anderson, E., Shaw, L. M., Bethel, C. A., and Teeple, L. (1999). Violent injuries among women in urban areas. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 1899-1905.Google Scholar
  13. He, H., McCoy, H. V., Stevens, S. J., and Stark, M. J. (1998).Violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among female sex partners of male drug users. Women and Health, 27, 161-175.Google Scholar
  14. Hotaling, G. T., and Sugarman, D. B. (1990). A risk marker of assaulted wives. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 1-13.Google Scholar
  15. Holtzworth-Muroe, A., and Stuart, G. L. (1994). Typologies of male batterers: Three subtypes and the differences among them. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 476-497.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, A. S., Gielen, A. C., Campbell, J. C., Schollenberger, J., O'Campo, P., Dienemann, J. A., Kub, J., and Wynn, E. C. (1999). Annual and lifetime prevalence of partner abuse in a sample of female HMO enrollees.Women's Health Issues, 9, 295-305.Google Scholar
  17. Kalichman, S. C., Williams, E. A., Cherry, C., Belcher, L., and Nachimson,D. (1998). Sexual coercion, domestic violence, and negotiating condom use among low-income African American women. Journal of Women's Health, 7, 371-378.Google Scholar
  18. Kyriacou, D. N., Anglin, D., Taliaferro, E., Stone, S., Tubb, T., Linden, J. A., Muelleman, R., Barton, E., and Kraus, J. F. (1999). Risk factors for injury to women from domestic violence. New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 1892-1898.Google Scholar
  19. Maman, S., Campbell, J., Sweat, M. D., and Gielen, A. C. (2000). The intersections of HIV and violence: Directions for future research and interventions. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 459-478.Google Scholar
  20. Martin, S. L., Matza, L. S., Kupper, L. L., Thoman, J. C., Daly, M., and Cloutier, S. (1999). Domestic violence and sexual transmitted diseases: The experience of prenatal care patients. Public Health Report, 1114, 262-268.Google Scholar
  21. North, R. L., and Rothenberg, K. H. (1993). Partner notification and the threat of domestic violence against women with HIV infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1194-1196.Google Scholar
  22. O'Campo, P., Gielen, A. C., Faden, R. R., Xue, X., Kass, N., and Wang, M. C. (1995). Violence by male partners against women during the childbearing year: A contextual analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 1092-1097.Google Scholar
  23. Parker, B., McFarlane, J., Soeken, K., Silva, C., and Reed, S. (1999). Testing an intervention to prevent further abuse to pregnant women. Research in Nursing and Health, 22, 59-66.Google Scholar
  24. Plichta, S. B. (1996). Violence and abuse: Implications for women's health. In M. M. Falik and K. S. Collins (Eds.)Women's Health: The Commonwealth Survey (pp. 237-272). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Saunders, D. G. (1992). A typology of men who batter: Three types derived from cluster analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6, 264-275.Google Scholar
  26. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., and Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283-316.Google Scholar
  27. Thompson, N. J., Potter, J. S., Sanderson, C. A., and Maibach, E. W. (1997). The relationship of sexual abuse and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual adult female STD patients. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21, 149-156.Google Scholar
  28. Tjaden, P., and Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C., and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  29. Vlahov, D., Wientge, D., Moore, J., Flynn, C., Schuman, P., Schoenbaum, E., and Zierler, S. (1998). Violence among women with or at risk for HIV infection. AIDS and Behavior, 2, 53-60.Google Scholar
  30. Wingood, G. M., and DiClemente, R. J. (1997). The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practice of African-American women. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1016-1018.Google Scholar
  31. Wingood, G. M., and DiClemente, R. J. (1998). Rape among African-American women: Sexual, psychological, and social correlates predisposing survivors to risk of STD/HIV. Journal of Women's Health, 7, 77-84.Google Scholar
  32. Zierler, S., and Krieger, N. (1997). Reframing women's risk: Social inequalities and HIV infection. Annual Review of Public Health, 18, 401-436.Google Scholar
  33. Zierler, S., Feingold, L., Laufer, D., Velentgas, P., Kantrowitz-Gordon, I., and Mayer,K. (1991). Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 572-575.Google Scholar
  34. Zierler, S., Witbeck, B., and Mayer, K. (1996). Sexual violence against women living with or at risk for HIV infection. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12, 304-309.Google Scholar
  35. Zierler, S., Cunningham, W. E., Andersen, R., Shapiro, M. F., Bozzette, S. A., Nakazono, T., Morton, S., Crystal, S., Stein, M., Turner, B., and St. Clair, P. (2000). Violence victimization after HIV infection in a probability sample of adult patients in primary care. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 208-215.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Carlson Gielen
    • 1
  • Karen A. McDonnell
    • 1
  • Patricia J. O'Campo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health Policy Management, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore
  2. 2.Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public HealthJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore

Personalised recommendations