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Flextime Commuters and Their Driver Stress, Feelings of Time Urgency, and Commute Satisfaction


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a flextime-working environment on driver stress, feelings of time urgency, and commute satisfaction for commuters in a large-city environment. It was hypothesized that, regardless of gender, commuters with flextime would have less driver stress, fewer feelings of time urgency, and more commute satisfaction. The study was conducted using one hundred and twenty-five full-time employed commuters from Atlanta, Georgia, the city with the largest average commute distance in the world. Results showed that the commuters with flextime reported less driver stress and fewer feelings of time urgency than those without flextime. Significant differences were not found for commute satisfaction. Gender did not appear to be a significant factor in determining driver stress, time urgency, or commute satisfaction.

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Lucas, J.L., Heady, R.B. Flextime Commuters and Their Driver Stress, Feelings of Time Urgency, and Commute Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology 16, 565–571 (2002).

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  • flextime
  • commuters
  • driver stress
  • time urgency
  • commute satisfaction