The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a flextime-working environment on driver stress, feelings of time urgency, and commute satisfaction for commuters in a large-city environment. It was hypothesized that, regardless of gender, commuters with flextime would have less driver stress, fewer feelings of time urgency, and more commute satisfaction. The study was conducted using one hundred and twenty-five full-time employed commuters from Atlanta, Georgia, the city with the largest average commute distance in the world. Results showed that the commuters with flextime reported less driver stress and fewer feelings of time urgency than those without flextime. Significant differences were not found for commute satisfaction. Gender did not appear to be a significant factor in determining driver stress, time urgency, or commute satisfaction.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Gulian, E., Matthews, G., Glendon, A. I., & Davies, D. R. (1989). Dimensions of driver stress. Ergonomics, 32, 585–602.
Gulian, E., Matthews, G., Glendon, A. I., Davies, D. R., & Debney, L. (1990). The stress of driving: A diary study. Work and Stress, 4, 7–16.
Hennessy, D. A., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (1997). The relationship between traffic congestion, driver stress, and direct versus indirect coping behaviors. Ergonomics, 40, 348–361.
Kluger, A. N. (1998). Commute variability and strain. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 147–165.
Koslowsky, M. (1997). Commuting stress: Problems of definition and variable identification. Applied Psychology, 46, 153–173.
Koslowsky, M., Kluger, A. N., & Reich, M. (1995). Commuting stress: Causes, effects, and methods of coping. New York: Plenium.
Koslowsky, M., & Krausz, M. (1993). On the relationship between commuting, stress symptoms, and attitudinal measures: A LISREL application. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 29, 485–493.
Meltzer, M. (1997, October 17). Atlanta leads in per capita income growth, commuting. Atlanta Business Chronicle, p. 5A.
Novaco, R. W., Stokols, D., & Milanesi, L. (1990). Objective and subjective dimensions of travel impedance as determinants of commuting stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18, 231–257.
Pierce, J. L., & Newstrom, J. W. (1982). Employee responses to flexible work schedules: An inter-organization, inter-system comparison. Journal of Management, 8, 9–25.
Pierce, J. L., Newstrom, J. W., Dunham, R. B., & Barber, A. E. (1989). Alternative work schedules. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Wiechman, L. (1998, October 12). Atlanta's gridlock hurting city's reputation and environment. Marketing News, p. 18.
About this article
Cite this article
Lucas, J.L., Heady, R.B. Flextime Commuters and Their Driver Stress, Feelings of Time Urgency, and Commute Satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology 16, 565–571 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015402302281
- driver stress
- time urgency
- commute satisfaction