Advertisement

Law and Human Behavior

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 365–376 | Cite as

Suspects, Lies, and Videotape: An Analysis of Authentic High-Stake Liars

  • Samantha Mann
  • Aldert Vrij
  • Ray Bull
Article

Abstract

This study is one of the very few, and the most extensive to date, which has examined deceptive behavior in a real-life, high-stakes setting. The behavior of 16 suspects in their police interviews has been analyzed. Clips of video footage have been selected where other sources (reliable witness statements and forensic evidence) provide evidence that the suspect lied or told the truth. Truthful and deceptive behaviors were compared. The suspects blinked less frequently and made longer pauses during deceptive clips than during truthful clips. Eye contact was maintained equally for deceptive and truthful clips. These findings negate the popular belief amongst both laypersons and professional lie detectors (such as the police) that liars behave nervously by fidgeting and avoiding eye contact. However, large individual differences were present.

deceptive behavior real-life high-stake lies suspect interviews 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Akehurst, L., Köhnken, G., Vrij, A., & Bull, R. (1996). Lay persons' and police officers' beliefs regarding deceptive behaviour. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, 461-471.Google Scholar
  2. Bagley, J., & Manelis, L. (1979). Effect of awareness of an indicator of cognitive load. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 49, 591-594.Google Scholar
  3. Bauer, L. O., Strock, B. D., Goldstein, R., Stern, J. A., & Walrath, L. C. (1985). Auditory discrimination and the eyeblink. Psychophysiology, 22, 629-635.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, K. L., & DePaulo, B.M. (1996). Liking and lying. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 243-266.Google Scholar
  5. Bond, C. F., & Fahey, W. E. (1987). False suspicion and the misinterpretation of deceit. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 41-46.Google Scholar
  6. Davis, M., & Hadiks, D. (1995). Demeanor and credibility. Semiotica, 106, 5-54.Google Scholar
  7. DePaulo, B. M. (1988). Nonverbal aspects of deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12, 153-162.Google Scholar
  8. DePaulo, B. M., & Kirkendol, S. E. (1989). The motivational impairment effect in the communication of deception. In J. C. Yuille (Ed.), Credibility assessment (pp. 51-70). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  9. DePaulo, B. M., Lanier, K., & Davis, T. (1983). Detecting deceit of the motivated liar. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 45, 1096-1103.Google Scholar
  10. DePaulo, B. M., LeMay, C. S., & Epstein, J. A. (1991). Effects of importance of success and expectations for success on effectiveness at deceiving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 14-24.Google Scholar
  11. DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2001). Cues to deception. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  12. DePaulo, B. M., & Rosenthal, R. (1979). Telling lies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1713-1722.Google Scholar
  13. DePaulo, B. M., Stone, J. I., & Lassiter, G. D. (1985a). Deceiving and detecting deceit. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life (pp. 323-370). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. DePaulo, B. M., Stone, J. I., & Lassiter, G. D. (1985b). Telling ingratiating lies: Effects of target sex and target attractiveness on verbal and nonverbal deceptive success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1191-1203.Google Scholar
  15. deTurck, M. A., & Miller, G. R. (1985). Deception and arousal: Isolating the behavioral correlates of deception. Human Communication Research, 16, 603-620.Google Scholar
  16. Ekman, P. (1989). Why lies fail and what behaviors betray a lie. In J. C. Yuille (Ed.), Credibility assessment (pp. 71-82). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  17. Ekman, P. (1992). Telling lies: Clues to deceit in the marketplace, politics and marriage. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1972). Hand movements. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 22, 353-374.Google Scholar
  19. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1974). Detecting deception from the body or face. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 288-298.Google Scholar
  20. Ekman, P., Friesen, W. V., & O'Sullivan, M. (1988). Smiles when lying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 414-420.Google Scholar
  21. Ekman, P., O'Sullivan, M., Friesen, W. V., & Scherer, K. (1991). Face, voice, and body in detecting deceit. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15, 125-135.Google Scholar
  22. Frank, M. G., & Ekman, P. (1997). The ability to detect deceit generalizes across different types of highstake lies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1429-1439.Google Scholar
  23. Goldman-Eisler, F. (1968). Psycholinguistics: Experiments in spontaneous speech. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  24. Harrigan, J. A., & O'Connell, D. M. (1996). Facial movements during anxiety states. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 205-212.Google Scholar
  25. Hocking, J. E., & Leathers, D.G. (1980). Nonverbal indicators of deception:Anew theoretical perspective. Communication Monographs, 47, 119-131.Google Scholar
  26. Höfer, E., Köhnken, G., Hanewinkel, R., & Bruhn, C. (1993). Diagnostik und attribution von glaubwurdigkeit (Final report to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, KO 8824-2, Kiel). Germany: University of Kiel.Google Scholar
  27. Porter, S., & Yuille, J. C. (1996). The language of deceit: An investigation of the verbal cues to deception in the interrogation context. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 443-458.Google Scholar
  28. Riggio, R. E., Tucker, J., & Throckmorton, B. (1988). Social skills and deception ability. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 268-577.Google Scholar
  29. Tecce, J. J. (1992). Psychology, physiology and experimental. McGraw-Hill yearbook of science and technology (pp. 375-377). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Vrij, A. (1995). Behavioral correlates of deception in a simulated police interview. Journal of Psychology, 129, 15-28.Google Scholar
  31. Vrij, A. (2000). Detecting lies and deceit: The psychology of lying and its implications for professional practice. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Vrij, A., Akehurst, L., & Morris, P. (1997). Individual differences in hand movements during deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21, 87-103.Google Scholar
  33. Vrij, A., Edward, K., & Bull, R. (2001a). People's insight into their own behavior and speech content while lying. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 373-389.Google Scholar
  34. Vrij, A., Edward, K., & Bull, R. (2001b). Stereotypical verbal and nonverbal responses while deceiving others. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 899-909.Google Scholar
  35. Vrij, A., Edward, K., Roberts, K. P., & Bull, R. (2000). Detecting deceit via analysis of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 24, 239-264.Google Scholar
  36. Vrij, A., & Heaven, S. (1999). Vocal and verbal indicators of deception as a function of lie complexity. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 5, 203-215.Google Scholar
  37. Vrij, A., & Holland, M. (1998). Individual differences in persistence in lying and experiences while deceiving. Communication Research Reports, 15, 299-308.Google Scholar
  38. Vrij, A., & M ann, S. A. (2001). Telling and detecting lies in a high-stake situation: The case of a convicted murderer. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 187-203.Google Scholar
  39. Vrij, A., & Semin, G. R. (1996). Lie experts' beliefs about nonverbal indicators of deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 20, 65-81.Google Scholar
  40. Vrij, A., Semin, G. R., & Bull, R. (1996). Insight into behavior displayed during deception. Human Communication Research, 22, 544-562.Google Scholar
  41. Vrij, A., & Winkel, F. W. (1991). Cultural patterns in Dutch and Surinam nonverbal behavior: An analysis of simulated police/citizen encounters. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 15, 169-184.Google Scholar
  42. Vrij, A., Winkel, F. W., & Akehurst, L. (1997). Police officers' incorrect beliefs about nonverbal indicators of deception and its consequences. In J. F. Nijboer & J. M. Reijntjes (Eds.), Proceedings of the first world conference on new trends in criminal investigation and evidence (pp. 221-238). Lelystad, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Vermande.Google Scholar
  43. Wallbott, H. G., & Scherer, K. R. (1991). Stress specifics: Differential effects of coping style, gender, and type of stressor on automatic arousal, facial expression, and subjective feeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 147-156.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Psychology-Law Society/Division 41 of the American Psychology Association 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samantha Mann
    • 1
  • Aldert Vrij
    • 1
  • Ray Bull
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouth, HantsUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations