Skip to main content

Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Pearl Millet under Water Stress and Different Potassium Supply

Abstract

Influence of supra-optimal concentrations of K on growth, water relations, and photosynthetic capacity in pearl millet under severe water deficit conditions was assessed in a glasshouse. Nineteen-days-old plants of two lines, ICMV-94133 and WCA-78, of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. were subjected for 30 d to 235.0, 352.5, and 470.0 mg(K) kg−1(soil) and two water regimes (100 and 30 % field capacity). Increasing K supply did not alleviate the effect of water deficit on the growth of two lines of pearl millet since additional amount of K in the growth medium had no effect on shoot dry mass, relative growth rate, plant leaf area, net assimilation rate, or leaf area ratio, although there was significant effect of drought stress on these variables. Soil moisture had a significant effect on net photosynthetic rate (P N), transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency of both pearl millet lines, but there was no significant effect of varying K supply on these variables. In WCA-78 an ameliorative effect of increasing supply of K on P N was observed under water deficit. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and b contents increased significantly in both lines with increase in K supply under well watered conditions, but under water deficit they increased only in ICMV-94133. Chl a/b ratios were reduced significantly in WCA-78 with increasing K supply under both watering regimes, but by contrast, in ICMV-94133 this variable was decreased only under water stress. Leaf water potential and osmotic potential of both lines decreased significantly with the imposition of drought. Leaf pressure potential in both lines increased with increase in K supply under water stress. Contents of total free amino acids in the leaves of both pearl millet lines increased significantly with increase in K supply under water stress. Potassium supply had no effect on leaf soluble sugars or soluble proteins. Considerable osmotic adjustment occurred in pearl millet plants experiencing water deficit under high K supply.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Ashraf, M.Y., Azmi, A.R., Khan, A.H., Ala, S.A.: Effect of water stress on total phenols, peroxidase activity and chlorophyll content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).-Acta Physiol. Plant. 16: 185-191, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashraf, M., Mehmood, S.: Response of four Brassica species to drought stress.-Environ. exp. Bot. 30: 93-100, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashraf, M., Naz, F.: Responses of some arid zone grasses to K deficiency.-Acta Physiol. Plant. 16: 69-80, 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ashraf, M., Shabaz, M., Ashraf, M.Y.: Influence of nitrogen supply and water stress on growth and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents in pearl millet.-Biol. Plant. 44: 459-462, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bidinger, F.R., Mahalakshmi, V., Rao, G.D.P.: Assessment of drought resistance in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke). II. Estimation of genotype response to stress.-Aust. J. agr. Res. 38: 49-59, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, J.S.: Differing sensitivity of photosynthesis to low leaf water potentials in corn and soybean.-Plant Physiol. 46: 236-239, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eck, H.V., Musick, J.T.: Plant water stress effects on irrigated grain sorghum. II. Effects on nutrients in plant tissues.-Crop Sci. 19: 592-598, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, E.: Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives.-Wiley, New York 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  • Estill, K., Delaney, R.H., Smith, W.K., Ditterline, R.L.: Water relations and productivity of alfalfa leaf chlorophyll variants.-Crop Sci. 31: 1229-1233, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flowers, T.J., Läuchli, A.: Sodium versus potassium: substitution and compartmentation.-In: Lauchli, A., Bieleski, R.I. (ed.): Encyclopaedia of Plant Physiology. Vol. 15 B. Pp. 651-681. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-New York 1983.

    Google Scholar 

  • García, A.L., Torrecillas, A., Léon, A., Ruiz-Sánchez, M.C.: Biochemical indicators of the water stress in maize seedlings.-Biol. Plant. 29: 45-48, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton, P.B., Van Slyke, D.D.: Amino acid determination with ninhydrin.-J. biol. Chem. 150: 231-233, 1943.

    Google Scholar 

  • Helal, M., Koch, K., Mengel, K.: Effect of salinity and potassium on the uptake of nitrogen and on nitrogen metabolism in young barley plants.-Physiol. Plant. 35: 310-313, 1975.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacoby, B., Abas, S., Steinitz, B.: Rubidium and potassium absorption by bean-leaf slices compared to sodium absorption.-Physiol. Plant. 28: 209-214, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jones, M.M., Osmond, C.B., Turner, N.C.: Accumulation of solutes in leaves of sorghum and sunflower in response to water deficits.-Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 7: 193-205, 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randal, R.J.: Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent.-J. biol. Chem. 193: 265-275, 1951.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mathews, M.A., Volkenburgh, E.V., Boyer, J.S.: Acclimation of leaf growth to low water potentials in sunflower.-Plant Cell Environ. 7: 199-206, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsuda, K., Rizvi, A.: Stress induced osmotic adjustment in growing regions of barley leaves.-Plant Physiol. 68: 571-576, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mengel, K., Pflüger, R.: The release of potassium and sodium from young excised roots of Zea mays under various efflux conditions.-Plant Physiol. 49: 16-19, 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pflüger, R., Cassier, A.: Influence of monovalent cation on photosynthetic CO2 fixation.-In: Fertilizer Use and Production of Carbohydrates and Lipids. Pp. 95-100. International Potash Institute, Bern 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  • Premachandra, G.S., Hahn, D.T., Rhodes, D., Joly, R.J.: Leaf water relations and solute accumulation in two grain sorghum lines exhibiting contrasting drought tolerance.-J. exp. Bot. 46: 1833-1841, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quarrie, S.A., Jones, H.G.: Genotypic variation in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, and abscisic acid concentration in spring wheat subjected to artificial drought stress.-Ann. Bot. 44: 323-332, 1979.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quintero, J.M., Fournier, J.M., Ramos, J., Benlloch, M.: K+ status and ABA affect both exudation rate and hydraulic conductivity in sunflower roots.-Physiol. Plant. 102: 279-284, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sen Gupta, A., Berkowitz, G.A., Pier, P.A.: Maintenance of photosynthesis at low leaf water potential in wheat. Role of potassium status and irrigation history.-Plant Physiol. 89: 1358-1365, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G.: Statistical Methods. 7th Ed.-Iowa State University Press, Ames 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turner, N.C., Jones, M.M.: Turgor maintenance by osmotic adjustment: A review and evaluation.-In: Turner, N.C., Kramer, P.J. (ed.): Adaptation of Plants to Water and High Temperature Stress. Pp. 87-103. Wiley Interscience, New York-Chichester-Brisbane-Toronto 1980.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Oosterom, E.J., Mahalakshmi, V., Arya, G.K., Dave, H.R., Gothwal, B.D., Joshi, A.K., Joshi, P., Kapoor, R.L., Sagar, P., Saxena, M.B., Singhania, D.L., Vyas, K.L.: Effect of yield potential, drought escape and drought tolerance on yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in different stress environments.-Indian J. agr. Res. 65: 629-635, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vyas, S.P., Kathju, S., Garg, B.K., Lahiri, A.N.: Performance and metabolic alterations in Sesamum indicum L. under different intensities of water stress.-Ann. Bot. 56: 323-331, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westgate, M.E., Boyer, J.S.: Osmotic adjustment and the inhibition of leaf, root, stem and silk growth at low water potentials in maize.-Planta 164: 540-549, 1985.

    Google Scholar 

  • Witham, F.H., Blaydes, D.F., Devlin, R.M.: Experiments in Plant Physiology.-Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yemm, E.W., Willis, A.J.: The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extract by anthrone.-Biochem. J. 57: 504-508, 1954.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ashraf, M., Ahmad, A. & McNeilly, T. Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Pearl Millet under Water Stress and Different Potassium Supply. Photosynthetica 39, 389–394 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015182310754

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015182310754

  • drought
  • leaf area
  • net assimilation rate
  • net photosynthetic rate
  • relative growth rate
  • stomatal conductance
  • supra-optimal nutrition
  • transpiration rate
  • water potential
  • water use efficiency