Journal of Traumatic Stress

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 615–632 | Cite as

Recent Victimization in Women and Men with Severe Mental Illness: Prevalence and Correlates

  • Lisa A. Goodman
  • Michelle P. Salyers
  • Kim T. Mueser
  • Stanley D. Rosenberg
  • Marvin Swartz
  • Susan M. Essock
  • Fred C. Osher
  • Marian I. Butterfield
  • Jeffrey Swanson
Article

Abstract

The problem of violence against individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) has received relatively little notice, despite several studies suggesting an exceptionally high prevalence of victimization in this population. This paper describes the results of an investigation of the prevalence and correlates of past year physical and sexual assault among a large sample of women and men with SMI drawn from inpatient and outpatient settings across 4 states. Results confirmed preliminary findings of a high prevalence of victimization in this population (with sexual abuse more prevalent for women and physical abuse more prevalent for men), and indicated the existence of a range of correlates of recent victimization, including demographic factors and living circumstances, history of childhood abuse, and psychiatric illness severity and substance abuse. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

abuse mental illness victimization schizophrenia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amaya-Jackson, L., Davidson, J. R., Hughes, D. C., Swartz, M., Reynolds, V., George, L. K., & Blazer, D. G. (1999). Functional impairment and utilization of services associated with posttraumatic stress in the community. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 709–724.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Bassuk, E. L., Buckner, J. C., Perloff, J. N., & Bassuk, S. S. (1998). Prevalence of mental health and substance abuse disorders among homeless and low-income housed mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(11), 1561–1564.Google Scholar
  4. Breslau, N., Davis, G. C., Andreski, P., & Peterson, E. (1991). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban population of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 216–222.Google Scholar
  5. Browne, A., & Bassuk, S. S. (1997). Intimate violence in the lives of homeless and poor housedwomen: Prevalence and patterns in an ethnically diverse sample. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 261–278.Google Scholar
  6. Byrne, C. A., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G., Best, C. L., & Saunders, B. E. (1999). The socioeconomic impact of interpersonal violence on women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 362–366.Google Scholar
  7. Cascardi, M., Mueser, K. T., DeGirolomo, J., & Murrin, M. (1996). Physical aggression against psychiatric inpatients by family members and partners: A descriptive study. Psychiatric Services, 47, 531–533.Google Scholar
  8. Center for Mental Health Services. (1996). Mental Health, United States (DHHS Pub. No. (SMA)96-3098). Washington, DC: Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Office.Google Scholar
  9. Cloitre, M., Tardiff, K., Marzuk, P. M., Leon, A. C., & Potera, L. (1996). Childhood abuse and subsequent sexual assault among female inpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 473–482.Google Scholar
  10. DeLisi, L. E. (1992). The significance of age of onset for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 209–215.Google Scholar
  11. Federal Register, 64(52), March 18, 1999, 13428–13430.Google Scholar
  12. First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B.W. (1996). Structured Clinical Interview for Axes I and II DSM-IV Disorders—Patient Edition (SCID-I/P). New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Gidycz, C. A., Hanson, K., & Layman, M. J. (1995). A prospective analysis of the relationships among sexual assault experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 5–29.Google Scholar
  14. Goldman, H. H., Gattozzi, A. A., & Taube, C. A. (1981). Defining and counting the chronically mentally ill. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 32, 21–27.Google Scholar
  15. Goodman, L. A. (1991). The prevalence of abuse among homeless and housed poor mothers: A comparison study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 489–500.Google Scholar
  16. Goodman, L. A., Dutton, M. A., & Harris, M. (1997). The relationship between violence dimensions and symptom severity among, homeless, mentally ill women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 51–70.Google Scholar
  17. Goodman, L. A., & Fallot, R. D. (1998). HIV risk-behavior in poor urban women with serious mental disorders: Association with childhood physical and sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 73–83.Google Scholar
  18. Goodman, L. A., Rosenberg, S. D., Mueser, K. T., & Drake, R. E. (1997). Physical and sexual assault history inwomen with serious mental illness: Prevalence, correlates, treatment and future research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 685–696.Google Scholar
  19. Goodman, L. A., Thompson, K. M., Weinfurt, K., Corl, S., Acker, P., Mueser, K. T., & Rosenberg, S. D. (1999). Reliability of reports of violent victimization and PTSD among men and women with severe mental illness. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 587–599.Google Scholar
  20. Hiday, V. A., Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J.W., Borum, R., & Wagner, H. R. (1999). Criminal victimization of persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 50, 62–68.Google Scholar
  21. Johnstone, E. C., Owens, D. G. C., Colter, N., & Crow, T. J. (1989). The spectrum of structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia: Age of onset as a predictor of clinical and cognitive impairments and their cerebral correlates. Psychological Medicine, 19, 91–103.Google Scholar
  22. Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060.Google Scholar
  23. Kilpatrick, D. G., Aceierno, R., Resnick, H. S., Saunders, B. E., & Best, C. L. (1997). A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationship between violent assault and substance abuse in women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 834–847.Google Scholar
  24. Koss, M. P., & Dinero, T. E. (1989). Discriminant analysis of risk factors for sexual victimization among a national sample of college women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 242–250.Google Scholar
  25. Koss, M. P., Goodman, L. A., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L. F., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F. (1994). Male violence against women at home, at work and in the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  26. Mueser, K. T., Goodman, L. B., Trumbetta, S. L., Rosenberg, S. D., Osher, F. C., Vidaver, R., Aucielo, P., & Foy, D.W. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 493–499.Google Scholar
  27. National Institute of Mental Health. (1994). Announcement of community support system strategy development and implementation. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  28. Rodriguez, N., Ryan, S. W., Van De Kemp, H., & Foy, D. W. (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 53–59.Google Scholar
  29. Rosenberg, S. D., Drake, R. E., Wolford, G. L., Mueser, K. T., Oxman, T. E., Vidaver, R. M., Carrieri, K. L., & Luckoor, R. (1998). Dartmouth assessment of lifestyle instrument (DALI): A substance use disorder screen for people with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 232–238.Google Scholar
  30. Rosenberg, S. D., Goodman, L. A., Osher, F. C., Swartz, M., Essock, S. M., Butterfield, M. I., & Constantine, N. T. (2001). Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 91(1), 31–37.Google Scholar
  31. Russell, D. E. H. (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  32. Ryan, S. W., Rodriguez, N., Rowan, A., & Foy, D. W. (1992, August). Psychometric analysis of the Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire (SAEQ). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  33. Schinnar, A., Rothbard, A., Kanter, R., & Jung, Y. (1990). An empirical literature review of definitions of severe and persistent mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1602–1608.Google Scholar
  34. Solomon, S. D., & Davidson, J. R. T. (1997). Trauma: Prevalence, impairment, service use, and cost. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 5–11.Google Scholar
  35. Straus, M. (1989a). Measuring intra-family conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics Scales. In M. Straus & R. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8145 families (pp. 29–47). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  36. Straus, M. (1989b). Newscoring methods for violence and newnorms for the Conflict Tactics Scales. In M. Straus & R. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8145 families (pp. 535–559). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  37. Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (1990). Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8145 families (pp. 29–47). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  38. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283–316.Google Scholar
  39. Suvisaari, J. M., Haukka, J., Tanskanen, A., & Lonnqvist, J. K. (1998). Age at onset and outcome in schizophrenia are related to the degree of familial loading. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 494–500.Google Scholar
  40. Switzer, G. E., Dew, M. A., Thompson, K., Goycoolea, J. M., Dericott, T., & Mullins, S. D. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder and service utilization among urban mental health center clients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 25–39.Google Scholar
  41. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998, November). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the national violence against women survey. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Research in Brief, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  42. Wilson, A. E., Calhoun, K. S., & Bernat, J. A. (1999). Risk recognition and trauma-related symptoms among sexually revictimized women. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 67, 705–710.Google Scholar
  43. Wyatt, G. E., Guthrie, D., & Notgrass, C. M. (1992). Differential effects of women's childhood sexual abuse and subsequent revictimization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60, 167–173.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa A. Goodman
    • 1
  • Michelle P. Salyers
    • 2
  • Kim T. Mueser
    • 3
  • Stanley D. Rosenberg
    • 3
  • Marvin Swartz
    • 4
  • Susan M. Essock
    • 5
  • Fred C. Osher
    • 6
  • Marian I. Butterfield
    • 7
    • 4
  • Jeffrey Swanson
    • 4
  1. 1.Boston CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Indiana University Purdue University
  3. 3.New-Hampshire Dartmouth Psychiatric Research CenterUSA
  4. 4.Duke UniversityUSA
  5. 5.Mount Sinai School of MedicineUSA
  6. 6.University of Maryland School of MedicineUSA
  7. 7.Department of Veterans AffairsDurham

Personalised recommendations