Global Change and Human Health

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 20–33 | Cite as

Dust in the Wind: Long Range Transport of Dust in the Atmosphere and Its Implications for Global Public and Ecosystem Health

  • Dale W. Griffin
  • Christina A. Kellogg
  • Eugene A. Shinn

Abstract

Movement of soil particles in atmospheres is a normal planetary process. Images of Martian dust devils (wind-spouts) and dust storms captured by NASA's Pathfinder have demonstrated the significant role that storm activity plays in creating the red atmospheric haze of Mars. On Earth, desert soils moving in the atmosphere are responsible for the orange hues in brilliant sunrises and sunsets. In severe dust storm events, millions of tons of soil may be moved across great expanses of land and ocean. An emerging scientific interest in the process of soil transport in the Earth's atmosphere is in the field of public and ecosystem health. This article will address the benefits and the potential hazards associated with exposure to particle fallout as clouds of desert dust traverse the globe.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Cadee GC. Darwin on Dust at Sea. Pages:News of the International Paleoscience Community 1998; 6: 16.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Darwin C. An account of the Fine Dust which often falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean. Quarterly Journal of the Geolog cal Society of London 1845; 2: 26–30.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Franklin B. Letter to Peter Coinson., 1755.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Graham WF, and Robert A. Duce. At mospheric pathways of the phosphorus cycle. Geochmcaet Cosmochmca Acta 1979; 43: 1195–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Swap R, Staney Uanski, Matthew Cobbett, and Michael Garstang. Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saharan dust outbreaks. Journal of Geo-Physical Research 1996; 101: 4205–4220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Swap R, M. Garstang, S. Greco, R. Tabot, and P. Kaberg. Saharan dust in the Amazon basin. Tellus 1992; 44: 133–149.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Pewe TL. Desert dust: An Overview. In: Pewe TL, ed. Desert Dust: Origin, Characteristics, and Effect on Man. Bouder: The Geological Society of America, 1981: 1–11.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Moulin C, Claude E. Lambert, Francois Dulac, and Uri Dayan. Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation. Nature 1997; 387: 691–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Henriksson AS, Michael Sarnthein, Geoffrey Eginton, and Jon Poynter. Dimethysulfide production variations over the past 200 k.y. in the equatorial Atlantic: A first estimate. Geology 2000; 28: 499–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Savoie DL, and J.M. Prospero. Water-Soube Potassium, cacium, and Magnesium in the Aerosos Over the Tropical North Atlantic. Journal of GeoPhysical Research 1980; 85: 385–392.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Prospero JM. At mospheric dust studies on Barbados. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1968; 49: 645–652.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Prospero JM. Long-term measurements of the transport of African mineral dust to the southeastern United States: Implications for regional air quality. Journal of Geophys cal Research 1999; 104: 15, 917–15, 927.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Prospero JM, and Ruby T. Nees.Impact of the North African drought and E Nino on minera dust in the Barbados trade winds. Nature 1986; 320: 735–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Mann JC. Composition and Origin of Materia in Pre-Columbian Pottery, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Geoarchaeology 1986; 1: 183–194.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Muhs DR, Charles A. Bush, Kathleen C. Stewart, Tracy R. Rowand and Russell C. Crittenden. Geochemica Evidence of Sahara Dust Parent Material for Soils Deveoped on Quaternary Limesones of Caribbean and Western At antic Islands. Quaternary Research 1990; 33: 157–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Rahn KA, R.D. Boyrs, G.E. Shaw, L. Schutz, and R. Jaenicke. Long-range Impact of Desert Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry:Two Examples.In: Fenner F, ed. Saharan Dust. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1977: 243–266.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Chadwick OA, L.A. Derry, P.M. Vitousek, B. J. Huebert, and L.O. Hedin. Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature 1999; 397: 491–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    McCauley JF, C.S. Breed, M.J. Grolier, and D.J. Mackinnon. The U.S. dust storm of February 1977. In: Pewe TL, ed. Desert Dust: Origin, Characteristics, and Effect on Man. Boulder: The Geological Society of America, Inc., 1981: 123–147.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Swezey C. Eolian sediment responses to ate Quaternary climate changes: temporal and spatial patterns in the Sahara. PALAEO 2001; 167: 119–z155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Shinn EA. Cora Reefs and Shoreline Dipsticks. In: Gerhard LC, W.E. Har-rison, and B. M. Hanson, ed. Geological perspectives of global climate change. Tulsa: The American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 2001: 251–264.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Thompson LG. Stable Isotopes and the r Relat onsh p to temperature as Recorded in Low-Latitude Ice Cores. In: Gerhard LC, W.E. Harrison, and B.M. Hanson, ed. Geological perspectives of global climate change. Tulsa: The American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 2001: 99–119.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Tucker CJ, and S.E. Nicholson. Variations in the Size of the Sahara Desert from 1980 to 1997. Ambio 1999; 28: 587–591.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Pimente D, C. Harvey, P. Resosudarmo, K. Sinclair, D. Kurz, M. McNair, S. Crist, L. Shpritz, L. Fitton, R. Saffouri, and R. Blair. Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil Erosion and Conservation Benefits. Science 1995; 267: 1117–1122.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Reheis MC. dust deposition downwind of Owens (Dry)Lake, 1991–1994: Preliminary findings. Journal of Geophys cal Research (Atmospheres) 1997; 102: 25, 999–26, 008.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Gill TE, and D.A. Gillette. Owens Lake:A natural laboratory for aridification, playa desiccation and desert dust. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 1991: 462.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Folland CK, T.N. Palmer, and D.E. Parker. Sahe rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures, 1901–1985. Nature 1986; 320: 602–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Coe MT, and J.A. Foley. Human and natural impacts on the water resources of the Lake Chad basin. Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 2001; 106: 3349–3356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Micklin PP. Desiccation of the Aral Sea: A Water Management Disaster in the Soviet Union. Science 1988; 241: 1170–1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Zhenda Z, and W. Tao. The trends of desertifi cation and its rehabilitation in China. Desertifi cation Control Bulletin 1993; 22: 27–29.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Fullen M, and D. Mitchell. Taming the Shamo dragon. Geographical Magazine 1993; 63: 26–29.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Patial R. Mountain desert silicosis. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1999; 47: 503–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Sanderson WT, K. Steenland, and J. A. Deddens. Historical respirabel quartz exposures of industrial sand workers: 1946–1996. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 2000; 38: 389–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    CDC. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report. Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2000.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    O'Hara SL, G.F.S. Wiggs, B. Mamedov, G. Davidson, and R.B. Hubbard. Exposure to airborne dust contaminated with pesticide in the Aral Sea region. The Lancet 2000; 355: 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    O'Malley MA, and S.A. McCurdy. Subacute poisoning with phosalone, an organophosphate insecticide. Western Journal of Medicine 1990; 153: 619–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Hooper K, K. Hopper, M.X. Petreas, J. She, P. Visita, J. Winkler, M. McKinney, M. Mok, F. Sy, J. Garcha, M. Gill, R.D. Stephens, G. Semenova, T. Sharmanov, T. Chuvakova, and K. Hopper. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in southern Kazakstan. Environmental Health Perspectives 1997; 105: 1250–1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Jensen S, Z. Mazhitova, and R. Zetterstrom. Environmental pollution and child health in the Aral Sea region in Kazakhstan. Science of the Total Environment 1997; 206: 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Hawthorne SB, David J. Miller, Peter K.K. Louie, Raymond D. Butler, and Gale G. Mayer. Atmospheric Pollutants and Trace Gases. Journal of Environmental Quality 1996; 25: 594–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Barrie LA, D. Gregor, B. Hargrave, R. Lake, D. Muir, R. Shearer, B. Tracey, and T. Bidleman. Arctic contaminants: sources, occurrence and pathways. Science of the Total Environment 1992; 122: 1–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Oehme M. Dispersion and transport paths of toxic persistent organochlorines to the artic—levels and consequences. Science of the Total Environment 1991; 106: 43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Burkow IC, R. Kallenborn. Sources and transport of persistent pollutants to the Arctic. Toxicology Letters 2000; 112–113: 87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Cleemann M, F. Riget, G.B. Paulsen, J. Klungsoyr, and R. Dietz. Organochlorines in Greenland marine fish, mussels and sediments. Science of the Total Environment 2000; 245: 87–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Dewailly E, P. Ayotte, S. Bruneau, S. Gingras, M. Belles-Isles, and R. Roy. Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000; 108: 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Mos L. Domoic acid: a fascination marine toxin. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2001; 9: 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Gravesen S. Fungi as a cause of allergic disease. Allergy 1979; 34: 135–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Burge HA, and C.A. Rogers. Outdoor allergens. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000; 108: 653–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Bener A, Y.M. Abdulrazzaq, J. Al-Mutawwa, and P. Debuse. Genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma. Human Biology 1996; 68: 405–414.Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Howitt ME. Asthma Management in the Caribbean-An Update. Postgraduate Doctor-Caribbean 2000; 16.Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Howitt ME, R. Naibu, and T.C. Roach. The Prevalence Of Childhood Asthma and Allergy In Barbados. The Barbados National Asthma and Allergy Study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998; 157: A624.Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Korenyi-Both AL, A.L. Kornyi-Both, A.C. Molnar, and R. Fidelus-Gort. Al Eskan disease: Desert Storm pneumonitis. Military Medicine 1992; 157: 452–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Nouh MS. Is the desert lung syndrome (nonoccupational dust pneumoconiosis) a variant of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis? Report of 4 cases with review of the literature. Respiration 1989; 55: 122–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Olenchock SA. Airborne endotoxin. In: Hurst CJ, ed. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Washington: ASM, 1997: 661–665.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Yang CS, and E. Johanning. airborne Fungi and Mycotoxins. In: Hurst CJ, ed. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Washington: ASM, 1997: 651–660.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Williams PL, D.L. Sable, P. Mendez, and L.T. Smyth. Symptomatic coccidioidomycosis following a severe natural dust storm. An outbreak at the Naval Air Station, Lemoore, Calif. Chest 1979; 76: 566–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    MMWR. Coccidioidomycosis in travelers returning from Mexico--Pennsylvania, 2000. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 2000: 1004–1006.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Jinadu BA. Valley Fever Task Force Report on the contro of Coccidioides immitis. Bakersfielde:Kern County Health Department, 1995.Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Eduard W, J. Douwes, R. Meh, D. Heederik, and W. Mebostad. Short term exposure to airborne microbia agents during farm work: exposure-response relations with eye and respiratory symptoms. Occupational and Environmental Med c ne 2001; 58: 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Rosas I, E. Sainas, A. Yea, E. Cava, C. Esava, and A. Cravioto. Escherichia coli is Sett ed-Dust and Air Sampes Collected in Residentia Environments in Mexico City. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1997; 63: 4093–4095.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Griffin DW, V.H. Garrison, J.R. Herman, and E.A. Shinn. African Desert Dust in the Caribbean Atmosphere:Microbiology and Public Health. Aerobiological 2001; In Press.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Herman JR, N. Krotkov, E. Celarier, D. Larko, and G. Labow. The Distribution of UV Radiation at the Earth 's Surface From TOMS Measured UV-Backscattered Radiances. Geophysical Research 1999; 104: 12059–12076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Torsvik V, K Salte, R. Sorheim, and J. Goksoyr. Comparison of phenotypic diversity and DNA heterogeneityin a population of soil bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1990; 56: 776–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Eilers H, J. Pernthaler, F.O. Glockner, and R. Amann. Cu trabi ity and in situ abundance of pelagic bacteria from the North Sea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2000; 66: 3044–3051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Borsheim KY, G. Bratbak, and M. Heldal. Enumeration and Biomass Estimation of Planktonic Bacteria and Viruses by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1990; 56: 352–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Mack RN, D. Simberloff, W.M. Lonsdale, H. Evens, M. Clout, and F. Bazzaz. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, goba consequences and control. Issues in Ecology 2000; 5: 1–25.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Kennedy D. Black carp and sick cows. Science 2001; 292:169.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Bourke PMA. Emergenci of potato blight, 1843–46. Nature 1964; 203: 805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Gregory P. Global program to develop ate blight resistant potato cultivars. CGIAR News 1996; 3: 1–3.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Perombelon MCM. Potato black eg: epidemiology, host-pathogen interaction and control Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 1992; 98: 135–146.Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Morra RAA. Evolution of entil diseases over 25 years in western Canada. Canad an Journal of Plant Pathology 1997; 19: 197–207.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Buchwaldt L, R.A.A. Morra, G. Chongo, and C.C. Bernier. Windborne dispersal of Colletotrichum truncatum and surviva in infested enti debris. Phytopathology 1996; 86: 1193–1198.Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Wilkening KE, L.A. Barrie, and M. Engle. Trans-Pacific Air Polution. Science 2000; 290: 65–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Pedgey DE. Long distance transport of spores. New York: Macmilan Publishing Company, 1986.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Davis JM. Mode ing the ong-range transport of plant pathogens in the atmosphere. Annual Reviews of Phytopathology 1987; 25: 169–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Purdy LH, S.V. Krupa, and J.L. Dean. Introduction of sugarcane rust into the Americas and its spread to F orida. Plant Disease 1985; 69: 689–693.Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Bowden J, P.H. Gregory, and C.G. Johnson. Possibe wind transport of coffee rust across the Atlantic Ocean. Nature 1971; 229: 500–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Stover RH. Intercontinenta spread of banana leaf spot (Mycospherella muscola ). Tropical Agriculture-Trinidad 1962; 39: 327–338.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Allen DJ. A catalogue of bean diseases recorded in Africa: a basis for updating quarantine legislation. Annual Report of the Bean Improvement Cooperative 1994; 37: 200–201.Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Fiser A, A. Lanikova, and P. Novak. Mold and microbial contamination of dust deposition in cowsheds for heifers and dairy cows. Veterinary Medicine-Czech 1994; 39: 245–253.Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Letellier A, S. Messier, J. Pare, J. Menard, and S. Quessy. Distribution of Salmonella in swine herds in Quebec. Veterinary Microbiology 1999; 67: 299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Limawongpranee S, H. Hayashidani, A.T. Okatani, C. Hirota, K. Kaneko, and M. Ogawa. Contamination of Salmonella blockley in the environment of a poultry farm. Avlan Diseases 1999; 43: 302–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Venkatesh MV, K.R. Joshi, S.C. Harjai, and I.N. Ramdeo. Aspergi osis in desert ocust (Schistocerka gregaria Forsk). Mycopathologia 1975; 57: 135–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Wooster GA, and P.R. Bowser. The aerobiological pathway of a sh pathogen: survival and dissemination of Aeromonas salmonella in aerosols and its implications in fish health management. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 1996; 27: 7–14.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Christensen LS, S. Mortensen, A. Botner, B.S. Strandbygaard, L. Ronsholt, C.A. Henricksen, and J.B. Anderson. Further evidence of ong distance air-borne transmission of Aujeszky 's disease (pseudorabies)virus. Veterinary Record 1993; 132: 317–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    Goster J, R.M. Blacka, R.F. Sellers, and A.I. Donadson. Forecasting the airborne spread of foot-and-mouth-disease. Veterinary Record 1981; 108: 370–374.Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Gloster J. Risk of airborne spread of foot-and-mouth-disease from the continent to England. Veterinary Record 1982; 111: 290–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Donadson AI, J. Goster, L.D.J. Harvey, and D.H. Deans. Use of prediction modes to forecast and analyze airborne spread during the foot-and-mouth-disease outbreaks in Brittany, Jersey and the Isle of Wight in1981. Veterinary Record 1982; 110: 53–57.Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Gloster J, R.F. Sellers, and A.I. Donaldson. Long-distance transport of foot-and-mouth-disease virus over the sea. Veterinary Record 1982; 110: 47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    Dybas CL. Rapid spread of infection puts wildlife at risk. Washington Post 2001 March 19: AO7.Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Shinn EA, G.W. Smith, J.M. Prospero, P. Betzer, M.L. Hayes, V. Garrison, and R.T. Barber. African Dust and the Demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs. Geological Research Letters 2000; 27: 3029–3032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    Weir JR, V. Garrison, E. Shinn, and G.W. Smith. The Relationship between Gorgonian Coral (Cnidaria:Gorgonacia)Diseases and African Dust Storms. In: Hopley D, P.M. Hopley, J. Tamelander, and T. Done, ed. 9th International Coral Reef Symposium.Bali, Indonesia, 2000: 78.Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Ritchie M, and David Pedgley. Desert Locusts cross the Atlantic. Atenna 1989; 13: 10–12.Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Rosenberg J, and P.J.A. Burt. Windborned displacements of dessert locusts from Africa to the Caribbean and South America. Aerobiologia 1999; 15: 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale W. Griffin
    • 1
  • Christina A. Kellogg
    • 1
  • Eugene A. Shinn
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Coastal Geology and Regional Marine Studies St. PetersburgU.S. Geological Survey

Personalised recommendations