Skip to main content
Log in

Abstract

Humour is a valid subject for research in artificial intelligence, as it is one of the more complex of human behaviours. Although philosophers and others have discussed humour for centuries, it is only very recently that computational work has begun in this field, so the state of the art is still rather basic. Much of the research has concentrated on humour expressed verbally, and there has been some emphasis on models based on “incongruity”. Actual implementations have involved puns of very limited forms. It is not clear that computerised jokes could enhance user interfaces in the near future, but there is a role for computer modelling in testing symbolic accounts of the structure of humorous texts. A major problem is the need for a humour-processing program to have knowledge of the world, and reasoning abilities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Attardo, S. (1994). Linguistic Theories of Humour. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Attardo, S. (1997). The Semantic Foundations of Cognitive Theories of Humor. HUMOR 4(10): 395-420.

    Google Scholar 

  • Attardo, S. & Raskin, V. (1991). Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model. HUMOR 4(3): 293-347.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bates, J. (1994). The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents. Technical Report CMU-CS-94-136, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Binsted, K. (1995). Using Humour to Make Natural Language Interfaces more Friendly. In H. Kitano (ed.) Proceedings of the IJCAI Workshop on AI and Entertainment.

  • Binsted, K., Pain, H. & Ritchie, G. (1997). Children's Evaluation of Computer-generated Punning Riddles. Pragmatics and Cognition 5(2): 309-358.

    Google Scholar 

  • Binsted, K. & Ritchie, G. (1994). An Implemented Model of Punning Riddles. In Proceedings of the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-94). Seattle, USA.

  • Binsted, K. & Ritchie, G. (1996). Speculations on Story Puns. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 151-159.

  • Binsted, K. & Ritchie, G. (1997). Computational Rules for Generating Punning Riddles. HUMOR 10(1): 25-76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, A. J. & Foot, H. C. (eds.) (1976). Humour and Laughter: Theory, Research and Applications. London: Transaction Publishers, first edition.

    Google Scholar 

  • Curcó, C. (1996). Relevance Theory and Humorous Interpretations. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 53-68.

  • Davies, C. (1990). Ethnic Humour around the World. Bloomington, Indiana.: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deckers, L. & Avery, P. (1994). Altered Joke Endings and a Joke Structure Schema. HUMOR 7(4): 313-321.

    Google Scholar 

  • Derks, P., Gillikin, L. S., Bartolome-Rull, D. S. & Bogart, E. H. (1997). Laughter and Electroencephalographic Activity. HUMOR 10(3): 285-300.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ephratt, M. (1990). What's in a Joke. In M. Golumbic (ed.) Advances in AI: Natural Language and Knowledge Based Systems. Springer Verlag, 43-74.

  • Ephratt, M. (1996). More on Humor Act: What sort of Speech Act is the Joke? In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 189-197.

  • Fave, L. L., Haddad, J. & Maesen, W. A. (1976). Superiority, Enhanced Self-Esteem, and Perceived Incongruity Humour Theory. In (Chapman and Foot, 1976), Chapt. 4, 63-91.

  • Freud, S. (1966). Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. First published 1905.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, J. (1971). A Mathematical Model of Transformational Grammar. New York: American Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, J. (1972). Mathematical and Computational Models of Transformational Grammar. In B. Meltzer and D. Michie (eds.) Machine Intelligence 7. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 293-306.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frijda, N. H. & Moffat, D. (1993). A Model of Emotions and Emotion Communication. In Proceedings of RO-MAN 93: 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, 29-34.

  • Frijda, N. H. & Moffat, D. (1994). Modelling Emotion. Cognitive Studies 1(2): 5-15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fry, W. F. (1994). The Biology of Humor. HUMOR 7(2): 111-126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., Gadfield, N. J., Davies, G. J. & Davies, A. P. (1976). Cognitive Aspects of Humour in Social Interaction: A Model and Some Linguistic Data. In (Chapman and Foot, 1976), Chapt. 7, 139-154.

  • Godkewitsch, M. (1976). Physiological and Verbal Indices of Arousal in Rated Humour. In (Chapman and Foot, 1976), Chapt. 6, 117-138.

  • Gruner, C. (1997). The Game of Humor. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hetzron, R. (1991). On the Structure of Punchlines. HUMOR 4(1): 61-108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs, J. (1990). Literature and Cognition, No. 21 in Lecture Notes. Stanford, California: Centre for the Study of Language and Information.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hulstijn, J. & Nijholt, A. (eds.) (1996). Proceedings of the InternationalWorkshop on Computational Humor, No. 12 in Twente Workshops on Language Technology. Enschede, Netherlands: University of Twente.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz, B. (1993). A Neural Resolution of the Incongruity and Incongruity-Resolution Theories of Humour. Connection Science 5: 59-75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz, B. (1996). A Neural Invariant of Humour. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 103-109.

  • Kitagaki, I. (1990). A Fuzzy Determination Method of Generating a Laugh and Popularity/Inferiority: “Students' Holiday” and “the Lowest in Running”. Journal of Japan Society for Fuzzy Theory and Systems 2(1): 100-104. In Japanese.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitagaki, I. (1993). Extraction of Identity on Pronounciation Concerning Play-on-word and Evaluation of a Tentative Software: Aiming a Wordprocessor of Human Friendliness. Technical Report HC92-65, Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers of Japan. In Japanese.

  • Koestler, A. (1970). The Act of Creation. London: Pan Books. First published 1964, Hutchinson & Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loehr, D. (1996). An Integration of a Pun Generator with a Natural Language Robot. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 161-172.

  • McKay, J. (2000). Generation of Idiom-Based Witticisms to aid Second Language Learning. Master's thesis, Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller, G. A., Beckwith, R., Fellbaum, C., Gross, D., Miller, K. & Tengi, R. (1990). Five Papers on WordNet. International Journal of Lexicography 3(4). Revised March 1993.

  • Minsky, M. (1975). A Framework for Representing Knowledge. In P. H. Winston (ed.) The Psychology of Computer Vision. New York: McGraw-Hill, 211-277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minsky, M. (1980). Jokes and the Logic of the Cognitive Unconscious. AI Memo 603, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minsky, M. (1986). The Society of Mind. London: Heinemann.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norrick, N. R. (1993). Repetition in Canned Jokes and Spontaneous Conversational Joking. HUMOR 6(4): 385-402.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oaks, D. D. (1994). Creating Structural Ambiguities in Humor: Getting English Grammar to Cooperate. HUMOR 7(4): 377-401.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raskin, V. (1985). Semantic Mechanisms of Humour. Dordrecht: Reidel.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raskin, V. (1996). Computer Implementation of the General Theory of Verbal Humor. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 9-20.

  • Raskin, V. & Attardo, S. (1994). Non-Literalness and Non-Bona-Fide in Language: Approaches to Formal and Computational Treatments of Humor. Pragmatics and Cognition 2(1): 31-69.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ritchie, G. (1999). Developing the Incongruity-Resolution Theory. In Proceedings of the AISB Symposium on Creative Language: Stories and Humour. Edinburgh, Scotland, 78-85.

  • Ruch, W. (ed.) (1996). Special Issue: Measurement Approaches to Sense of Humor. HUMOR 9(3/4).

  • Ruch, W., Attardo, S. & Raskin, V. (1993). Toward an Empirical Verification of the General Theory of Verbal Humour. HUMOR 6(2): 123-136.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schank, R. & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stock, O. (1996). Password Swordfish: Verbal Humour in the Interface. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 1-8.

  • Takizawa, O., M. Y. amd Akira Ito & Isahara, H. (1996). On Computational Processing of Rhetorical Expressions-Puns, Ironies and Tautologies. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 39-52.

  • Utsumi, A. (1996). Implicit Display Theory of Verbal Irony: Towards a Computational Model of Irony. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 29-38.

  • Veale, T. & Keane, M. (1996). Bad Vibes: Catastrophes of Goal Activation in the Appreciation of Disparagement Humour and General Poor Taste. In (Hulstijn and Nijholt, 1996), 133-150.

  • Zillmann, D. & Cantor, J. R. (1976). A Disposition Theory of Humour andMirth. In (Chapman and Foot, 1976), Chapt. 5, 93-115.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ritchie, G. Current Directions in Computational Humour. Artificial Intelligence Review 16, 119–135 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011610210506

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011610210506

Navigation