Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 127–140 | Cite as

A Psychophysiological Marker of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—Defining the EEG Consistency Index

  • Boris Kovatchev
  • Daniel Cox
  • Rebecca Hill
  • Ronald Reeve
  • Raina Robeva
  • Tim Loboschefski


This study continues our research to further validate the idea that ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) interferes with transition from one task to another and this interference can be quantified by a Consistency Index (CI) derived from a specific mathematical representation of EEG data. We reanalyze 32 previously reported data sets present new data for 35 boys and girls, ages 7–12, ADHD or control. Each data set contains EEG, recorded and digitized while participants perform consecutive 10-min tasks: video, reading, and math. For boys, the CI in ADHD was four times lower than in controls, p < .005, for girls this difference was two times, p < .05. ADHD/control classification based on the CI coincided with the DSM-IV criteria for 88% of the boys and for 67% of the girls. Post hoc analysis indicated that the classification utility of the CI diminished with age. A CI below 40% could be a discriminating, reliable, and reproducible marker of ADHD in young boys.

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) electroencephalography (EEG) mathematical modeling 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Boris Kovatchev
    • 1
  • Daniel Cox
    • 1
  • Rebecca Hill
    • 2
  • Ronald Reeve
    • 2
  • Raina Robeva
    • 3
  • Tim Loboschefski
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Behavioral Medicine ResearchUniversity of Virginia Health SystemCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of Virginia School of EducationCharlottesvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematical SciencesSweet Briar CollegeSweet BriarUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologySweet Briar CollegeSweet BriarUSA

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