Advertisement

Ethnic Minorities, Social Integration and Crime

  • Josine Junger-Tas
Article

Abstract

This article first discusses various dimensions of the social integration of minorities into society. The Netherlands is taken as an example, although research from other countries (such as the US and Sweden) is also taken into consideration. Useful concepts in this regard include the level to which these groups have social, informative and cultural capital that can help them to integrate into the dominant society. The second part considers the theoretical links between integration and criminal behaviour. The author assumes that the fundamental causal processes that lead to the development of criminality and other negative behaviour are independent of country of origin, ethnic group or the country of residence. In other words – that these processes, as they emerge in social control theory, have a universal character. In the second place, she assumes that differences in crime between ethnic groups are linked to group differences in socio-economic integration in the host country and in culture-related variables. Furthermore, there are also differences in the criminality of allochtonous youth within ethnic groups. These are similarly assumed to be linked to differences in commitment to social institutions such as family and school and to differences in accepting specific Western norms and values.

antisocial behaviour ethnic minorites integration policies neighbourhoods social control theory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Barnum, R., Biomedical problems in juvenile delinquency: Issues in diagnosis and treatment. In: J.Q. Wilson and G.C. Loury (Eds), From Children to Citizens: Families, Schools and Delinquency Prevention, pp. 51–87. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. Bowen W.G. and D. Bok, The Shape of the River: Long-term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. Box, S., Deviance, Reality and Society. London/New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. Briar, S. and I. Piliavin, Delinquency, situational inducements and commitment to conformity. Social Problems, 13, pp. 413–423, 1965.Google Scholar
  5. Burgers, J. and G. Engbersen (Eds), De ongekende stad I: illegale vreemdelingen in Rotterdam. Amsterdam: Boom, 1999.Google Scholar
  6. Cloward, R.A. and L.E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity. New York: The Free Press, 1960.Google Scholar
  7. Coleman, J.C., Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Suppl.), pp. S95-S110, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. Crul, M., De sleutel tot succes: over hulp, keuzes en kansen in de schoolloopbanen van Turkse en Marokkaanse jongeren van de tweede generatie. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 2000.Google Scholar
  9. Durkheim, E., Moral Education. Translation by E.K. Wilson and H. Schnurer. New York: The Free Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  10. Elliott, D.S. and S. Menard, Delinquent friends and delinquent behavior: Temporal and developmental patterns. In: J.D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories, pp. 28–68. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. Entzinger, H.B., —Minderheden of medeburgers? Naar een nieuw integratie-paradigma. In: H. Heern, P. Vogel and H. Werdmölder (Eds), Etnische minderheden en wetenschappelijk onderzoek, pp. 8–79. Meppel: Boom, 1996.Google Scholar
  12. Farrington, D.P., Stepping stones to adult criminal careers. In: D. Olweus, J. Block and M.K. Yarvow (Eds), Development of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior, pp. 359–384. New York: Academic Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  13. Farrington, D.P., Early precursors of frequent offending. In: J.Q.Wilson and C.G. Loury (Eds), From Children to Citizens, pp. 27–50. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. Farrington, D.P., Longterm prediction of offending and other life outcomes. In: H.F. Wegener, F. Lösel and J. Haïsch (Eds), Criminal Behavior and the Justice System: Psychological Perspectives. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. Farrington, D.P. and D.J. West, The Cambridge study in delinquent development: A longterm follow-up of 411 males. In: G. Kaiser and H.J. Kerner (Eds), Criminality, Personality, Behaviour, Life History. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  16. Galenkamp, M. and S. Tempelman, —Cultuur terug in het minderhedenbeleid: naar een Islamitische zuil? Justitiële verkenningen, 23(6), pp. 83–95, 1997.Google Scholar
  17. Glazer, N., We are all Multiculturalists Now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  18. Groenendijk, K., —Recht en de multi-etnische samenleving. In: R. Penninx, H. Münstermann and H. Entzinger (Eds), Etnische minderheden en de multiculturele samenleving, pp. 205–237. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1998.Google Scholar
  19. Hirschi, T., Causes of Delinquency, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  20. Hirschi, T., Family. In: T. Hirschi and M.R. Gottfredson (Eds), The Generality of Deviance, pp. 47–69. New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. Huesmann, L.R., L.D. Eron, M.M. Lefkowitz and L.O. Walder, Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20(6), pp. 1120–1134, 1984.Google Scholar
  22. Junger, M., Delinquency and Ethnicity: An Investigation on Social Factors Relating to Delinquency among Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Dutch Boys. Deventer/Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. Junger, M. and L.C. Steehouwer, Verkeersongevallen bij kinderen uit etnische minderheden. The Hague: Ministry of Justice, WODC, 1990.Google Scholar
  24. Junger, M., K. Wittebrood and R. Timman, —Etniciteit en ernstig en gewelddadig crimineel gedrag. In: R. Loeber, W. Slot and J. Sergeant (Eds), Ernstige en gewelddadige criminaliteit in Nederland(forthcoming).Google Scholar
  25. Junger-Tas, J., Verborgen jeugddelinquentie en gerechtelijke selectie. Brussels: Studiecentrum voor Jeugdmisdadigheid, 1976.Google Scholar
  26. Junger-Tas, J., Causal factors: Social control theory. In: J. Junger-Tas and R.L. Block (Eds), Juvenile Delinquency in the Netherlands, pp. 41–77. Amstelveen: Kugler, 1988.Google Scholar
  27. Kornhauser, R.R., Social Sources of Delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  28. Lindo, M.P., —Integratie op kousevoeten: Het snelle succes van de Zuid-Europeanen in Nederland. Justitiële verkenningen, 23(6), pp. 21–36, 1997.Google Scholar
  29. Lindo, M.P. and R. Penninx, Nieuwkomers, nakomelingen, Nederlanders: immigranten in Nederland. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1992.Google Scholar
  30. Loeber, R., What policymakers and practitioners can learn from family studies of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. In: J.Q. Wilson and G.C. Loury (Eds), From Children to Citizens, pp. 87–112. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987.Google Scholar
  31. Loeber, R., Anti-social behavior: More enduring than changeable? American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3), pp. 393–397, 1991.Google Scholar
  32. Loeber, R. and T. Dishion, Early predictors in male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, pp. 68–99, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. Loeber, R. and M. Stouthamer-Loeber, Family factors as correlates and predictors of juvenile conduct problems and delinquency. Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, Vol. 7, pp. 29–151, 1986.Google Scholar
  34. Lucassen, L.A.C.J., —Niets nieuws onder de zon? De vestiging van vreemdelingen in Nederland sinds de 16e eeuw. Justitiële verkenningen, 27(6), pp. 10–21, 1997.Google Scholar
  35. Maharidge, D., The Coming White Minority. Random House: Times Books, 1996.Google Scholar
  36. Martens, P.L., Immigrants and crime prevention. In: P.O. Wikström, R.V. Clarke and J. McCord (Eds), Integrating Crime Prevention Strategies: Propensity and Opportunity. Stockholm: National Council of Crime Prevention, 1995.Google Scholar
  37. Matza, D., Delinquency and Drift. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1964.Google Scholar
  38. Merton, R.K., Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  39. Mittelbach, F.G. and J.W. Moore, Ethnic endogamy: The case of Mexican Americans. American Journal of Sociology, 74, pp. 50–62, 1968.Google Scholar
  40. Olweus, D., Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86(4), pp. 852–875, 1979.Google Scholar
  41. Patterson, G.R., Some alternatives to seven myths about treating families of anti-social children. In: C. Henricson (Ed.), Crime and the Family: Proceedings of an International Conference, pp. 26–50. London, 1994.Google Scholar
  42. Pels, T., Marokkaanse kleuters en hun culturele kapitaal: opvoeden en leren in het gezin en op school. Amsterdam/Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1991.Google Scholar
  43. Pels, T., Opvoeding in Marokkaanse gezinnen in Nederland. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1998.Google Scholar
  44. Rank, M.R. and T. Hirschi, A rural-urban comparison of welfare exits. Rural Sociology, 53, pp. 190–206, 1988.Google Scholar
  45. Reckless, W.C., A new theory of delinquency and crime. Federal Probation, 25, pp. 42–46, 1961.Google Scholar
  46. Riley, D. and M. Shaw, Parental Supervision and Juvenile Delinquency. London: HMSO, 1985.Google Scholar
  47. Rutter, M. and H. Giller, Juvenile Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1983.Google Scholar
  48. Sampson, R.J. and J. Laub, Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  49. Sampson, R.J., J.D. Morenoff and F. Earls, Beyond social capital: Spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. American Sociological Review, 64, pp. 633–660, 1999.Google Scholar
  50. Sampson, R.J., S.W. Raudenbusch and F. Earls, Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, pp. 914–918, 1997.Google Scholar
  51. Sellin, Th., Culture Conflict and Crime. New York: Social Science Research Council, 1938.Google Scholar
  52. Shaw, C.R. and H.D. McKay, Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1942.Google Scholar
  53. Sutherland, E.H. and D.R. Cressey, Principles of Criminology, 5th ed. Chicago: Lippincott, 1955.Google Scholar
  54. Tonry, M., Malign Neglect: Race, Crime and Punishment in America. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  55. Van der Hoek, J., Socialisatie in migrantengezinnen. Utrecht: De Tijdstroom, 1994.Google Scholar
  56. Van der Leun, J., G. Engbersen and P. van der Heijden, Illegaliteit en criminaliteit: schattingen, aanhoudingen en uitzettingen. Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998.Google Scholar
  57. Van Heelsum, A.J., De etnisch-culturele positie van de tweede generatie Surinamers. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1997.Google Scholar
  58. Veenman, J., Heb je niets, dan ben je niets: tweede generatie allochtone jongeren in Amsterdam. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1996a.Google Scholar
  59. Veenman, J., Keren de kansen? De tweede generatie allochtonen in Nederland. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1996b.Google Scholar
  60. Vermeulen, H. and R. Penninx, Het democratisch ongeduld: de emancipatie en integratie van zes doelgroepen van het Minderhedenbeleid. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1994.Google Scholar
  61. UN Subcommission on the Prevention and Protection of Minorities, Yearbook of Human Rights for 1950. New York: United Nations, 1952.Google Scholar
  62. Wikström, P-O., Communities and crime. In: M. Tonry (Ed.), The Handbook of Crime and Punishment, pp. 269–302. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  63. Wilson, W.J., The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner-city, the Underclass and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The Brooking Institution, 1987.Google Scholar
  64. Wirth, L., The problem of minority groups. In: R. Linton (Ed.), The Science of Man in the World Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1945.Google Scholar
  65. Yinger, J.M., Ethnicity: Source of Strength, Source of Conflict? New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josine Junger-Tas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.E.M. Meijers InstituteUniversity of LeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.School of Forensic Science and CriminologyUniversity of LausanneThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations